multi drug resistance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-007
Chigozie John Ekenze ◽  
Samuel Monday Utin ◽  
Timothy Olugbenga Ogundeko ◽  
Oyinyechi Lilian Umunnakwe ◽  
Lilian Chioma Owunna ◽  

More exploration on medicinal plants and other natural products in the present era of increase in poverty level and multi-drug resistance has become crucial. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory activities of Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil extract on isolated staphylococcal conjunctivitis. Cultured sample of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient’s eye discharge in the Teaching Hospital Laboratory of the Imo State University, Nigeria having been diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis at the eye Clinic. After the incubation period, the diameter of zones of inhibition both horizontal and vertical were measured. Concentrations (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa were assayed for the antibacterial activity - Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at concentration of 100mg /ml exhibited the highest zone of inhibition at 37.4mm for 24hrs followed by 50mg /ml and lowest using 25mg/ml (5.0mm) indicating a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on Staphylococcal conjunctivitis. S. aureus isolated from conjunctivitis swab was susceptible to ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml concentrations, suggesting ethanolic extract of V. paradoxa oil as possessing antimicrobial property. Further exploration for its use as an ocular anti-bacterial agent is recommended.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 301
Khalid Zoghebi ◽  
Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi ◽  
Rakesh Kumar Tiwari ◽  
Keykavous Parang

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast, leukemia, and lymphoma malignancies. However, cardiotoxicity and inherent acquired resistance are major drawbacks, limiting its clinical application. We have previously shown that cyclic peptide [WR]9 containing alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues acts as an efficient molecular transporter. An amphiphilic cyclic peptide containing a lysine (K) residue and alternative W and R was conjugated through a free side chain amino group with Dox via a glutarate linker to afford [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate. Antiproliferative assays were performed in different cancer cell lines using the conjugate and the corresponding physical mixture of the peptide and Dox to evaluate the effectiveness of synthesized conjugate compared to the parent drug alone. [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate showed higher antiproliferative activity at 10 µM and 5 µM than Dox alone at 5 μM. The conjugate inhibited the cell viability of ovarian adenocarcinoma (SK-OV-3) by 59% and the triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by 71% and 77%, respectively, at a concentration of 5 μM after 72 h of incubation. In contrast, Dox inhibited the proliferation of SK-OV-3, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 by 35%, 63%, and 57%, respectively. Furthermore, [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate (5 µM) inhibited the cell viability of Dox-resistant cells (MES-SA/MX2) by 92%, while the viability of cells incubated with free Dox was only 15% at 5 μM. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the ability of both Dox conjugate and the physical mixture of the peptide with the drug to deliver Dox through an endocytosis-independent pathway, as the uptake was not inhibited in the presence of endocytosis inhibitors. The stability of Dox conjugate was observed at different time intervals using analytical HPLC when the conjugate was incubated with 25% human serum. Half-life (t1/2) for [(WR)8WKβA]-Dox conjugate was (∼6 h), and more than 80% of the conjugate was degraded at 12 h. The release of free Dox was assessed intracellularly using the CCRF-CEM cell line. The experiment demonstrated that approximately 100% of free Dox was released from the conjugate intracellularly within 72 h. These data confirm the ability of the cyclic cell-penetrating peptide containing tryptophan and arginine residues as an efficient tool for delivery of Dox and for overcoming resistance to it.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Kevin Maclean ◽  
Fernande Olpa J Pankendem Njamo ◽  
Mahloro Hope Serepa-Dlamini ◽  
Kulsum Kondiah ◽  
Ezekiel Green

SCUBA divers are predisposed to otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant (MDR). The present work assessed the antibiotic resistance profiles of P. aeruginosa obtained from SCUBA divers and their environment in Sodwana Bay, South Africa. Bacterial isolates from a total of 137 random water and ear swab samples were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. P. aeruginosa strains were further evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility using the Kirby–Bauer assay. Double disk synergy test (DDST) to confirm metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production and PCR amplification of specific antibiotic resistance genes was performed. All (100%) 22 P. aeruginosa isolates recovered were resistant to 6 of the β-lactams tested including imipenem but exhibited susceptibility to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole. MBL production was observed in 77% of isolates while the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes present included blaAmpC (86.9%) followed by blaTEM (82.6%). Sulfonamide resistance was largely encoded by sul1 (63.6%) and sul2 (77.3%) genes with a high abundance of class 1 integrons (77.3%) of which 18.2% carried both Intl1 and Intl2. P. aeruginosa found in Sodwana Bay exhibits multi-drug resistance (MDRce) to several pharmaceutically important drugs with the potential to transfer antibiotic resistance to other bacteria if the judicious use of antibiotics for their treatment is not practiced.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Miguel Mendes Costa ◽  
Miguel Cardo ◽  
Patricia Soares ◽  
Maria Cara d’Anjo ◽  
Andreia Leite

Animal and food sources are seen as a potential transmission pathway of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to humans. The aim of this study is to describe Campylobacter, Salmonella, and commensal Escherichia coli multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the food chain between 2014 and 2019 in Portugal. AMR surveillance data from food-producing animals and food were assessed. MDR relative frequencies were estimated by bacterial genus and year. AMR profiles were created using observations of resistance to antimicrobial classes from each isolate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were clustered using k-modes. Clusters were described by population, AMR classification, β-lactamases, sample stage, sample type, season, and year. Overall, MDR was more prevalent for E. coli, ranging from 74–90% in animal and 94–100% in food samples. MDR was found to be more widespread in resistance profiles that were common among E. coli and Salmonella isolates and in those exclusively observed for E. coli, frequently including (fluoro)quinolones and cephalosporins resistance. β-lactam resistance was observed around 75% to 3rd/4th-generation cephalosporins in E. coli. Clusters suggest an escalating MDR behaviour from farm to post-farm stages in all bacteria and that Salmonella (fluoro)quinolones resistance may be associated with broilers. These findings support policy and decision making to tackle MDR in farm and post-farm stages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
Yogendra Shah ◽  
Sarad Paudel ◽  
Kishor Pandey ◽  
Govind Prasad Gupta ◽  
Eddie Samuneti Solo ◽  

AbstractTuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in humans and animals. Numbers of multi drug resistance TB (MDR-TB), extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) and zoonotic TB cases are increasingly being reported every year in Nepal posing a major public health problem. Therefore, the Government of Nepal should act immediately to strengthen the screening facilities across the country to be able to identify and treat the TB infected patients as well as detect zoonotic TB in animal species. Endorsement of One Health Act by the Government of Nepal is an opportunity to initiate the joint programs for TB surveillance among human and animal species using one health approach to reduce the TB burden in Nepal.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 161
Luisa D’Angelo ◽  
Domenico Vecchio ◽  
Debora Cozza ◽  
Immacolata La Tela ◽  
Maria Rosaria Carullo ◽  

This case report describes for the first-time cases of severe gastroenteritis in water buffalo calves due to a new serovar of Salmonella enterica. The study was carried out on fecal matrix collected from live water buffalo calves that showed profuse diarrhea, severe dehydration and fever, exhibiting a systemic course. Culture and molecular investigations identified the pathogens isolated from intestinal contents as two Salmonella serovars, Salmonella enterica enterica O:35 and a new serovar of Salmonella enterica. The isolates showed multi-drug resistance. Timely diagnosis associated with a targeted antimicrobial treatment were found to be sufficient for the survival and recovery of the infected animals. Herd vaccines prepared from isolated pathogens were used to prevent further deaths of the calves.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi ◽  
Aymen M. Madkhali ◽  
Ahmed A. Abdulhaq ◽  
Wahib M. Atroosh ◽  
Ahmad Hassn Ghzwani ◽  

AbstractA total of 227 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Jazan region, southwestern Saudi Arabia were amplified for the P. falciparum multi-drug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene to detect point mutations 11 years after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Saudi Arabia. The pfmdr1 86Y mutation was found in 11.5% (26/227) of the isolates while the N86 wild allele was detected in 88.5%. Moreover, 184F point mutations dominated (86.3%) the instances of pfmdr1 polymorphism while no mutation was observed at codons 1034, 1042 and 1246. Three pfmdr1 haplotypes were identified, NFSND (74.9%), NYSND (13.7%) and YFSND (11.4%). Associations of the prevalence of 86Y mutation and YFSND haplotype with participants’ nationality, residency and parasitaemia level were found to be significant (P < 0.05). The findings revealed significant decline in the prevalence of the pfmdr1 86Y mutation in P. falciparum isolates from Jazan region over a decade after the implementation of ACT treatment. Moreover, the high prevalence of the NFSND haplotype might be indicative of the potential emergence of CQ-sensitive but artemether-lumefantrine-resistant P. falciparum strains since the adoption of ACT. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the molecular markers of antimalarial drug resistance in Jazan region is highly recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Abimbola O. Aro ◽  
Ibukun M. Famuyide ◽  
Ademola A. Oyagbemi ◽  
Prudence N. Kabongo-Kayoka ◽  
Lyndy J. McGaw

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of global importance that affects millions of people. Approximately a quarter of the world’s population is currently infected with M. tuberculosis, and about 10% of those infected will develop into active disease, particularly immune compromised individuals. Helminthiasis is of global health importance, affecting over 2 billion people mostly in resource-poor countries. Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and helminths (worms) is an emerging global public health concern with both affecting about one-third of the global population. Chronic infection with helminths can result in impaired immune responses to TB as well as enhancing failure to TB therapy and BCG vaccination. Antimycobacterial and anthelmintic activities of the acetone extract and fractions of Psychotria capensis were evaluated, including their in vitro safety. In addition, the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of the fractions and crude extract of P. capensis were assessed. Antimycobacterial activity of the extract and fractions was tested against four non-tuberculous mycobacteria (Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. aurum, M. bovis BCG) and pathogenic M. tuberculosis H37Rv while the Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) was used for the anthelmintic test on eggs of Haemonchus contortus. Cytotoxicity was determined against Vero kidney cells while in vitro immune modulation via cytokine production was determined on activated macrophages. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the Psychotria capensis acetone extract and fractions ranged from 39 to 1,250 μg/ml with the crude extract and hexane fraction having the best MIC values (both 39 μg/ml). In the EHA, the inhibitory concentration (IC50) ranged from 160 to 630 μg/ml with the hexane fraction having the best activity. The hexane and chloroform fractions were relatively non-toxic with LC50 values of 290 and 248 μg/ml respectively, while the acetone crude extract (64 μg/ml) and n-butanol fraction (71 μg/ml) were moderately toxic. The SI values (LC50/MIC) ranged from 0.1 to 7.4 with the hexane fraction having the highest value against M. smegmatis (7.4). The hexane fraction had the best dual anthelmintic and antimycobacterial activity. This fraction had the best NO inhibitory activity and was the least cytotoxic, indicating that its activity was not due to general metabolic toxicity, with 96.54% cell viability. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12p70 were upregulated while IL-10 expression was inhibited by the extracts. Compounds were detected using GC-MS analysis, and in both the crude acetone extract and the hexane fraction was the diterpene neophytadiene, which has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Finding alternative or complementary approaches to dealing with TB infections by, amongst other things, reducing the incidence of helminth infestations may lessen the burden of TB, contributing to slowing the spread of multi-drug resistance.

Muhammad Kamruzzaman ◽  
Amy J. Mathers ◽  
Jonathan R. Iredell

Conjugative plasmids are the principal mediator in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacterales. Plasmid entry-exclusion (EEX) systems can restrict their transfer into the recipient bacteria carrying closely related plasmids. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel plasmid entry exclusion system in a carbapenem resistance plasmid pKPC_UVA01, responsible for widespread dissemination of the bla KPC carbapenemase gene among Enterobacterales in the United States. The identified eex gene in the recipient strain of different Enterobacterales species inhibits the conjugation transfer of pKPC_UVA01 plasmids at a range of 200-400 fold, and this inhibition was found to be a dose-dependent function of the EEX protein in recipient cells. The C-terminus truncated version of eex or eex with an early termination codon at the C-terminus region alleviates inhibition of conjugative transfer. Unlike the strict specificity of plasmid exclusion by the known EEX protein, the newly identified EEX in the recipient strain can inhibit the transfer of IncP and IncN plasmids. The eex gene from the plasmid pKPC_UVA01 is not required for conjugative transfer but is essential in the donor bacteria for entry exclusion of this plasmid. This is a novel function of a single protein that is essential in both donor and recipient bacteria for entry exclusion of a plasmid. This eex gene is found to be distributed in multi-drug resistance plasmids similar to pKPC_UVA01 in different Enterobacterales species and may contribute to the stability of this plasmid type by controlling its transfer.

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