Cancer Treatment
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-4
Margaret Schermerhorn ◽  

Disparities exist in both breast cancer outcomes and treatment delays. Breast cancer treatment delays are multifactorial and lead to decreased survival rates and lower quality of life.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Ayako Sato ◽  
Maiko Fujimori ◽  
Yuki Shirai ◽  
Shino Umezawa ◽  
Masanori Mori ◽  

Abstract Objective Early integration of palliative and cancer care improves the quality of life and is facilitated by discussions about the end of life after cessation of active cancer treatment between patients with advanced cancer and their physicians. However, both patients and physicians find end-of-life discussions challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the need for a question prompt list (QPL) that encourages end-of-life discussions between patients with advanced cancer and their physicians. Methods Focus group interviews (FGIs) were conducted with 18 participants comprising 5 pancreatic cancer patients, 3 family caregivers, 4 bereaved family members, and 6 physicians. Three themes were discussed: question items that should be included in the QPL that encourages end-of-life discussions with patients, family caregivers, and physicians after cessation of active cancer treatment; when the QPL should be provided; and who should provide the QPL. Each interview was audio-recorded, and content analysis was performed. Results The following 9 categories, with 57 question items, emerged from the FGIs: (1) preparing for the end of life, (2) treatment decision-making, (3) current and future quality of life, (4) current and future symptom management, (5) information on the transition to palliative care services, (6) coping with cancer, (7) caregivers’ role, (8) psychological care, and (9) continuity of cancer care. Participants felt that the physician in charge of the patient's care and other medical staff should provide the QPL early during active cancer treatment. Significance of results Data were collected to develop a QPL that encourages end-of-life discussions between patients with advanced cancer and their physicians.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhang Juan ◽  
Zhang Qing ◽  
Liang Yongping ◽  
Liyuan Qian ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  

Background: Docetaxel is an important chemotherapy-agent for breast cancer treatment. One of its side-effects is weight gain, which increases the all-cause mortality rate. Considering gut microbiota is one important factor for weight regulation, we hypothesized that probiotics could be potentially used to reduce the docetaxel-related weight gain in breast cancer patients.Methods: From 10/8/2018 to 10/17/2019, 100 breast cancer (Stage I-III) patients underwent four cycles of docetaxel-based chemotherapy were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Enterococcus faecalis) or placebo (supplementary material of the probiotics capsule) treatment for 84 days with three capsules per time, twice/day. The primary outcome: the changes in body weight and body-fat percentage of the patients were measured by a designated physician using a fat analyzer, and the secondary outcomes: the fasting insulin, plasma glucose, and lipids were directly obtained from the Hospital Information System (HIS); The metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); The fecal microbiome was analyzed using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. All indicators were measured 1 day before the first cycle of docetaxel-based chemotherapy and 21 days after the last cycle of docetaxel-based chemotherapy.Results: Compared with the placebo group, the probiotic group showed significantly smaller changes in body weight (Mean [SD] 0.77 [2.58] vs. 2.70 [3.08], P = 0.03), body-fat percentage (Mean [SD] 0.04 [1.14] vs. 3.86 [11.09], P = 0.02), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (Mean [SD]−0.05[0.68] vs. 0.39 [0.58], P = 0.002). Moreover, five of the 340 detected plasma metabolites showed significant differences between the two groups. The change of biliverdin dihydrochloride (B = −0.724, P = 0.02) was inverse correlated with weight gain. One strain of the phylum and three strains of the genus were detected to be significantly different between the two groups. Also, the changes of Bacteroides (B = −0.917, P < 0.001) and Anaerostipes (B = −0.894, P < 0.001) were inverse correlated with the change of LDL.Conclusions: Probiotics supplement during docetaxel-based chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment may help to reduce the increase in body weight, body-fat percentage, plasma LDL, and minimize the metabolic changes and gut dysbacteriosis.Clinical Trial Registration:, ChiCTR-INQ-17014181.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
Rosie Twomey ◽  
Samuel Yeung ◽  
James G. Wrightson ◽  
Lillian Sung ◽  
Paula D. Robinson ◽  

Physical activity is recommended for the management of cancer-related fatigue (CRF), yet the evidence is primarily based on interventions delivered during cancer treatment, with no eligibility criterion for fatigue. There is a need to examine the quantity and quality of the existing literature on physical activity for clinically-relevant CRF that continues after cancer treatment (post-cancer fatigue). The objective of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate the effect of physical activity on post-cancer fatigue in adults, using randomized trials where fatigue was an eligibility criterion. Studies were included if they: included adult participants with a cancer diagnosis who had completed initial cancer treatments (e.g., surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy); explicitly stated that fatigue was a participant eligibility/inclusion criterion, regardless of how this was described or assessed; involved a physical activity intervention; measured fatigue as a primary or secondary outcome. A previous systematic search was updated and electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) and In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL) were last searched on October 13, 2020. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for randomized trials. A random-effects meta-analysis for the severity of fatigue across different scales at the end of the intervention was conducted. A total of 1035 participants were randomized across 19 studies. We estimate that less than 10% of the randomized trials of physical activity for CRF include people with post-cancer fatigue. The effect of physical activity on post-cancer fatigue was modest and variable (Hedge’s g -0.40; p = 0.010; 95% prediction intervals -1.41 to 0.62). Most studies had an unknown or high risk of bias, there was substantial heterogeneity between trials and evidence for the effect of physical activity on post-cancer fatigue was graded as low certainty. Including people with clinically relevant fatigue is a priority for future research in cancer survivorship. Additional transparently reported randomized clinical trials are needed to better understand the benefits of physical activity for post-cancer fatigue.

Alene Sze Jing Yong ◽  
Yi Heng Lim ◽  
Mark Wing Loong Cheong ◽  
Ednin Hamzah ◽  
Siew Li Teoh

2021 ◽  
Liana R. Galtieri ◽  
Kaitlyn M. Fladeboe ◽  
Kevin King ◽  
Debra Friedman ◽  
Bruce Compas ◽  

2021 ◽  
John C Dawson ◽  
Alison Munro ◽  
Kenneth Macleod ◽  
Morwenna Muir ◽  
Paul Timpson ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ivry Zagury-Orly ◽  
Nader Khaouam ◽  
Jonathan Noujaim ◽  
Martin Y. Desrosiers ◽  
Anastasios Maniakas

Radiation (RT) and chemoradiation therapy (CRT) play an essential role in head and neck cancer treatment. However, both cause numerous side effects in the oral cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx, having deleterious consequences on patients’ quality of life. Concomitant with significant advances in radiation oncology, much attention has turned to understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of treatment-induced tissue toxicity, to ultimately explore microbiome manipulation as a therapeutic intervention. This review sought to discuss current publications investigating the impact of RT and CRT-induced changes on the head and neck microbiome, using culture-independent molecular methods, and propose opportunities for future directions. Based on 13 studies derived from a MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science search on November 7, 2021, use of molecular methods has uncovered various phyla and genera in the head and neck microbiome, particularly the oral microbiome, not previously known using culture-based methods. However, limited research has investigated the impact of RT/CRT on subsites other than the oral cavity and none of the studies aimed to examine the relationship between the head and neck microbiome and treatment effectiveness. Findings from this review provide helpful insights on our current understanding of treatment-induced oral mucositis, dental plaque, and caries formation and highlight the need for future research to examine the effect of RT/CRT on the sinonasal and oropharyngeal microbiome. In addition, future research should use larger cohorts, examine the impact of the microbiome on treatment response, and study the effect of manipulating the microbiome to overcome therapy resistance.

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