spike protein
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2022 ◽  
Vol 000 (000) ◽  
pp. 000-000
Valentina L. Kouznetsova ◽  
Aidan Zhang ◽  
Mark A. Miller ◽  
Mahidhar Tatineni ◽  
Jerry P. Greenberg ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jong-hoon Lee ◽  
Seongcheol Cho ◽  
Badar Kanwar ◽  
Keum-ho Lee ◽  
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated inflammasome diseases. Moreover, its pathophysiology involves the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, neuropilin‑1 pathway, inflammasome activation pathway, sterile alpha motif (SAM) and histidine-aspartate domain (HD)-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization pathway, cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway, spike protein/inflammasome-genetic pathway, and immunological memory engram pathway. Therefore, it is necessary to prescribe anticatalytic treatments to alleviate the SARS-CoV-2 inflammasome, immunologic engram, and spike protein levels.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262174
Valentina Tonelotto ◽  
Annamaria Davini ◽  
Laura Cardarelli ◽  
Milena Calderone ◽  
Paola Marin

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test Kit, a rapid immunochromatographic assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Moreover, we sought to point out the strategy adopted by a local company to lift the lockdown without leading to an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, by performing a precise and timely health surveillance. Methods The rapid Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test was performed immediately after sampling following the manufacturer’s instructions. RT-PCRs were performed within 24 hours of specimen collection. A total amount of 253 nasopharyngeal samples from 121 individuals were collected between March 16 and April 2, 2021 and tested. Results Of 253 nasopharyngeal samples, 11 (9.1%) were positive and 242 (90.9%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR assays. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test’s mean sensitivity and specificity were 84,6% (95% CI, 54.6–98.1%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.6–100%), respectively. Two false negative test results were obtained from samples with high RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct). Conclusion Our study suggested that Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test can be introduced into daily diagnostic practice, as its mean sensitivity and specificity follow the standards recommended by WHO and IFCC Task Force. In addition, we underlined how the strategy adopted by a local company to risk assessment and health surveillance was appropriate for infection containment. This real-life scenario gave us the possibility to experience potential approaches aimed to preserve public health and work activities.

2022 ◽  
Zhaochun Chen ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Yumiko Matsuoka ◽  
Yaroslav Tsybovsky ◽  
Kamille West ◽  

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has triggered a devastating global health, social and economic crisis. The RNA nature and broad circulation of this virus facilitate the accumulation of mutations, leading to the continuous emergence of variants of concern with increased transmissibility or pathogenicity1. This poses a major challenge to the effectiveness of current vaccines and therapeutic antibodies1,2. Thus, there is an urgent need for effective therapeutic and preventive measures with a broad spectrum of action, especially against variants with an unparalleled number of mutations such as the recently emerged Omicron variant, which is rapidly spreading across the globe3. Here, we used combinatorial antibody phage-display libraries from convalescent COVID-19 patients to generate monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with ultrapotent neutralizing activity. One such antibody, NE12, neutralizes an early isolate, the WA-1 strain, as well as the Alpha and Delta variants with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations at picomolar level. A second antibody, NA8, has an unusual breadth of neutralization, with picomolar activity against both the Beta and Omicron variants. The prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of NE12 and NA8 was confirmed in preclinical studies in the golden Syrian hamster model. Analysis by cryo-EM illustrated the structural basis for the neutralization properties of NE12 and NA8. Potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against conserved regions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein may play a key role against future variants of concern that evade immune control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alireza Mansouri ◽  
Rasoul Kowsar ◽  
Mostafa Zakariazadeh ◽  
Hassan Hakimi ◽  
Akio Miyamoto

AbstractThe novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently a big concern around the world. Recent reports show that the disease severity and mortality of COVID-19 infected patients may vary from gender to gender with a very high risk of death for seniors. In addition, some steroid structures have been reported to affect coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, function and activity. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells depends on the binding of coronavirus spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Viral main protease is essential for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. It was hypothesized that steroid molecules (e.g., estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone and calcitriol) could occupy the active site of the protease and could alter the interaction of spike protein with ACE2. Computational data showed that estradiol interacted more strongly with the main protease active site. In the presence of calcitriol, the binding energy of the spike protein to ACE2 was increased, and transferring Apo to Locked S conformer of spike trimer was facilitated. Together, the interaction between spike protein and ACE2 can be disrupted by calcitriol. Potential use of estradiol and calcitriol to reduce virus invasion and replication needs clinical investigation.

2022 ◽  
Arinjay Banerjee ◽  
Jocelyne Lew ◽  
Andrea Kroeker ◽  
Kaushal Baid ◽  
Patryk Aftanas ◽  

The omicron variant of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. Omicron variant has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD), raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. Here, we isolated infectious omicron from a clinical specimen obtained in Canada. The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, beta, delta, and omicron VOCs was assessed. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus during the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada (July, 2020) demonstrated reduced neutralization against beta, delta and omicron VOCs. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the delta variant (May-June, 2021) neutralized omicron to significantly lower levels compared to the delta variant. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of both delta and omicron variants relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Importantly, infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the delta variant was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against omicron. This data will inform current booster vaccination strategies and we highlight the need for additional studies to identify longevity of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and optimal neutralizing antibody levels that are necessary to prevent infection and/or severe COVID-19.

Benjamin L. Sievers ◽  
Saborni Chakraborty ◽  
Yong Xue ◽  
Terri Gelbart ◽  
Joseph C. Gonzalez ◽  

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that possess mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by pre-existing immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wildtype (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

2022 ◽  
Andrea T. Nguyen ◽  
Christopher Szeto ◽  
Demetra S.M. Chatzileontiadou ◽  
Zhen Wei Marcus Tong ◽  
Michael J. Dewar-Oldis ◽  

The >30 mutated residues in the Omicron spike protein have led to its rapid classification as a new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. As a result, Omicron may escape from the immune system, decreasing the protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines. Preliminary data shows a weaker neutralizing antibody response to Omicron compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can be increased after a booster vaccine. Here, we report that CD8+ T cells can recognize Omicron variant epitopes presented by HLA-A*02:01 in both COVID-19 recovered and vaccinated individuals, even 6 months after infection or vaccination. Additionally, the T cell response was stronger for Omicron variant epitopes after the vaccine booster. Altogether, T cells can recognize Omicron variants, especially in vaccinated individuals after the vaccine booster.

2022 ◽  
Sung Joong Lee ◽  
Jun Young Oh ◽  
Woo-Hyun Cho ◽  
Barcelon Ellane ◽  
Kwang Hwan Kim ◽  

Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is accompanied by chronic neurological sequelae such as cognitive decline and mood disorder, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we explored the possibility that the brain-infiltrating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein contributes to the development of neurological symptoms observed in COVID-19 patients. Our behavioral study showed that administration of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit (S1 protein) to mouse hippocampus induced cognitive deficit and anxiety-like behavior in vivo. These neurological symptoms were accompanied by neuronal cell death in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus as well as glial cell activation. Interestingly, the S1 protein did not directly induce hippocampal cell death in vitro. Rather, it exerted neurotoxicity via glial cell activation, partially through interleukin-1β induction. In conclusion, our data suggest a novel pathogenic mechanism for the COVID-19-associated neurological symptoms that involves glia activation and non-cell autonomous hippocampal neuronal death by the brain-infiltrating S1 protein.

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