The increasing number of residents in South Tangerang has an impact on increasing the need for lower housing. The development of vertical housing with the market name of flats, apartments and is the most effective anticipatory solution to overcome land prices which result in market limitations, especially for the upper middle class. This 32-storey apartment project uses a combined foundation system between drill pile foundation & raft foundation. With the combination of these two very massive systems, of course, it will have a very expensive cost to implement and take a long time to complete. In order to avoid cost overruns, the foundation design must look at the possibilities. To determine the efficiency of the combined system foundation design between pile bored foundation & raft foundation, the researchers analyzed the value of the bearing capacity and also the settlement that occurred in the existing foundation using the Poulos method, the equivalent Raft method and the Vesic method. From the results of the study, it was found that the contribution of the pile foundation bearing capacity was 24.10%. the placement of the raft foundation is 75.90% and the settlement analysis using the Poulos 8.95cm method, the 12.41cm Equivalent Raft method and the Vesic 12.1cm method, these three results are close to the maximum settlement limit.
Purpose Image annotation plays an important role in image retrieval process, especially when it comes to content-based image retrieval. In order to compensate the intrinsic weakness of machines in performing cognitive task of (human-like) image annotation, leveraging humans’ knowledge and abilities in the form of crowdsourcing-based annotation have gained momentum. Among various approaches for this purpose, an innovative one is integrating the annotation process into the CAPTCHA workflow. In this paper, the current state of the research works in the field and experimental efficiency analysis of this approach are investigated.Design/methodology/approach At first, and with the aim of presenting a current state report of research studies in the field, a comprehensive literature review is provided. Then, several experiments and statistical analyses are conducted to investigate how CAPTCHA-based image annotation is reliable, accurate and efficient.Findings In addition to study of current trends and best practices for CAPTCHA-based image annotation, the experimental results demonstrated that despite some intrinsic limitations on leveraging the CAPTCHA as a crowdsourcing platform, when the challenge, i.e. annotation task, is selected and designed appropriately, the efficiency of CAPTCHA-based image annotation can outperform traditional approaches. Nonetheless, there are several design considerations that should be taken into account when the CAPTCHA is used as an image annotation platform.Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to analyze different aspects of the titular topic through exploration of the literature and experimental investigation. Therefore, it is anticipated that the outcomes of this study can draw a roadmap for not only CAPTCHA-based image annotation but also CAPTCHA-mediated crowdsourcing and even image annotation.
Shipping and port industries are undergoing rapid environmental changes because of the reorganization of carrier alliances, enlargement of ships, and an increase in global uncertainty. Thus, the sustainable operation of container terminals requires a new assessment of port efficiency and measures to enhance efficient operation. Hence, we classified 21 global terminal operators (GTOs) into stevedore, carrier, and hybrid GTOs based on their operation characteristics and derived a sustainable container terminal operation method using data envelopment analysis efficiency and Malmquist productivity index analysis. The results showed that stevedore GTOs exhibited improved efficiency when the terminal infrastructure was expanded. However, the returns to scale and technical change factors in the productivity change trend decreased. Meanwhile, the objective of carrier GTOs is cost reduction, unlike stevedore and hybrid GTOs, which focus on generating profits. Consequently, carrier GTOs were the most inefficient with little intention to improve efficiency. A systematic efficiency improvement strategy through the acquisition of a terminal share was effective for hybrid GTOs. However, similar to stevedore GTOs, investment in technical change was insufficient for hybrid GTOs. The efficiency analysis we conducted for each operation characteristic is expected to provide useful basic data for establishing efficiency improvement strategies for every GTO.