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Author(s):  
Farah Flayeh Alkhalid ◽  
Abdulhakeem Qusay Albayati ◽  
Ahmed Ali Alhammad

The main important factor that plays vital role in success the deep learning is the deep training by many and many images, if neural networks are getting bigger and bigger but the training datasets are not, then it sounds like going to hit an accuracy wall. Briefly, this paper investigates the current state of the art of approaches used for a data augmentation for expansion the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) chest X-ray images using different data augmentation methods (transformation and enhancement) the dataset expansion helps to rise numbers of images from 138 to 5520, the increasing rate is 3,900%, this proposed model can be used to expand any type of image dataset, in addition, the dataset have used with convolutional neural network (CNN) model to make classification if detected infection with COVID-19 in X-ray, the results have gotten high training accuracy=99%


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-62
Author(s):  
Nampoina Andriamilanto ◽  
Tristan Allard ◽  
Gaëtan Le Guelvouit ◽  
Alexandre Garel

Modern browsers give access to several attributes that can be collected to form a browser fingerprint. Although browser fingerprints have primarily been studied as a web tracking tool, they can contribute to improve the current state of web security by augmenting web authentication mechanisms. In this article, we investigate the adequacy of browser fingerprints for web authentication. We make the link between the digital fingerprints that distinguish browsers, and the biological fingerprints that distinguish Humans, to evaluate browser fingerprints according to properties inspired by biometric authentication factors. These properties include their distinctiveness, their stability through time, their collection time, their size, and the accuracy of a simple verification mechanism. We assess these properties on a large-scale dataset of 4,145,408 fingerprints composed of 216 attributes and collected from 1,989,365 browsers. We show that, by time-partitioning our dataset, more than 81.3% of our fingerprints are shared by a single browser. Although browser fingerprints are known to evolve, an average of 91% of the attributes of our fingerprints stay identical between two observations, even when separated by nearly six months. About their performance, we show that our fingerprints weigh a dozen of kilobytes and take a few seconds to collect. Finally, by processing a simple verification mechanism, we show that it achieves an equal error rate of 0.61%. We enrich our results with the analysis of the correlation between the attributes and their contribution to the evaluated properties. We conclude that our browser fingerprints carry the promise to strengthen web authentication mechanisms.


Author(s):  
Tatsuya Hiraoka ◽  
Sho Takase ◽  
Kei Uchiumi ◽  
Atsushi Keyaki ◽  
Naoaki Okazaki

We propose a method to pay attention to high-order relations among latent states to improve the conventional HMMs that focus only on the latest latent state, since they assume Markov property. To address the high-order relations, we apply an RNN to each sequence of latent states, because the RNN can represent the information of an arbitrary-length sequence with their cell: a fixed-size vector. However, the simplest way, which provides all latent sequences explicitly for the RNN, is intractable due to the combinatorial explosion of the search space of latent states. Thus, we modify the RNN to represent the history of latent states from the beginning of the sequence to the current state with a fixed number of RNN cells whose number is equal to the number of possible states. We conduct experiments on unsupervised POS tagging and synthetic datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than previous methods. In addition, the results on the synthetic dataset indicate that the proposed method can capture the high-order relations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Yubo Yan ◽  
Panlong Yang ◽  
Jie Xiong ◽  
Xiang-Yang Li

The global IoT market is experiencing a fast growth with a massive number of IoT/wearable devices deployed around us and even on our bodies. This trend incorporates more users to upload data frequently and timely to the APs. Previous work mainly focus on improving the up-link throughput. However, incorporating more users to transmit concurrently is actually more important than improving the throughout for each individual user, as the IoT devices may not require very high transmission rates but the number of devices is usually large. In the current state-of-the-arts (up-link MU-MIMO), the number of transmissions is either confined to no more than the number of antennas (node-degree-of-freedom, node-DoF) at an AP or clock synchronized with cables between APs to support more concurrent transmissions. However, synchronized APs still incur a very high collaboration overhead, prohibiting its real-life adoption. We thus propose novel schemes to remove the cable-synchronization constraint while still being able to support more concurrent users than the node-DoF limit, and at the same time minimize the collaboration overhead. In this paper, we design, implement, and experimentally evaluate OpenCarrier, the first distributed system to break the user limitation for up-link MU-MIMO networks with coordinated APs. Our experiments demonstrate that OpenCarrier is able to support up to five up-link high-throughput transmissions for MU-MIMO network with 2-antenna APs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 100602
Author(s):  
F.J. Chadare ◽  
M. Affonfere ◽  
E. Sacla Aidé ◽  
F.K. Fassinou ◽  
K.V. Salako ◽  
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Author(s):  
Meriem Guerar ◽  
Luca Verderame ◽  
Mauro Migliardi ◽  
Francesco Palmieri ◽  
Alessio Merlo

A recent study has found that malicious bots generated nearly a quarter of overall website traffic in 2019 [102]. These malicious bots perform activities such as price and content scraping, account creation and takeover, credit card fraud, denial of service, and so on. Thus, they represent a serious threat to all businesses in general, but are especially troublesome for e-commerce, travel, and financial services. One of the most common defense mechanisms against bots abusing online services is the introduction of Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA), so it is extremely important to understand which CAPTCHA schemes have been designed and their actual effectiveness against the ever-evolving bots. To this end, this work provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art in the field of CAPTCHA schemes and defines a new classification that includes all the emerging schemes. In addition, for each identified CAPTCHA category, the most successful attack methods are summarized by also describing how CAPTCHA schemes evolved to resist bot attacks, and discussing the limitations of different CAPTCHA schemes from the security, usability, and compatibility point of view. Finally, an assessment of the open issues, challenges, and opportunities for further study is provided, paving the road toward the design of the next-generation secure and user-friendly CAPTCHA schemes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Author(s):  
Maxime Lamothe ◽  
Yann-Gaël Guéhéneuc ◽  
Weiyi Shang

Recent software advances have led to an expansion of the development and usage of application programming interfaces (APIs). From millions of Android packages (APKs) available on Google Store to millions of open-source packages available in Maven, PyPI, and npm, APIs have become an integral part of software development. Like any software artifact, software APIs evolve and suffer from this evolution. Prior research has uncovered many challenges to the development, usage, and evolution of APIs. While some challenges have been studied and solved, many remain. These challenges are scattered in the literature, which hides advances and cloaks the remaining challenges. In this systematic literature review on APIs and API evolution, we uncover and describe publication trends and trending topics. We compile common research goals, evaluation methods, metrics, and subjects. We summarize the current state-of-the-art and outline known existing challenges as well as new challenges uncovered during this review. We conclude that the main remaining challenges related to APIs and API evolution are (1) automatically identifying and leveraging factors that drive API changes, (2) creating and using uniform benchmarks for research evaluation, and (3) understanding the impact of API evolution on API developers and users with respect to various programming languages.


2023 ◽  
Vol 74 (10) ◽  
pp. 6138-2023
Author(s):  
ANNA PIKUŁA ◽  
KRZYSZTOF ŚMIETANKA

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly infectious and contagious immunosuppressive viral disease of chickens with a worldwide economic significance to the poultry industry. Over fifty years have passed since the first confirmed occurrence of the disease, and the virus has spread all over world and evolved into multiple genetic, antigenic and pathotypic variants, becoming a serious threat to the poultry industry. The primary tool in IBD eradication is the maintenance of strict biosecurity in poultry farms and implementation of vaccination programmes which should take into account the current epidemiological knowledge about the IBDV strains circulating in the field. This review article presents the current state of knowledge about the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) with special regard to the molecular biology of the virus, immunological aspects, as well as current and future prevention strategies.


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