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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Sizhe An ◽  
Yigit Tuncel ◽  
Toygun Basaklar ◽  
Gokul K. Krishnakumar ◽  
Ganapati Bhat ◽  

Movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, affect more than 10 million people worldwide. Gait analysis is a critical step in the diagnosis and rehabilitation of these disorders. Specifically, step and stride lengths provide valuable insights into the gait quality and rehabilitation process. However, traditional approaches for estimating step length are not suitable for continuous daily monitoring since they rely on special mats and clinical environments. To address this limitation, this article presents a novel and practical step-length estimation technique using low-power wearable bend and inertial sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed model estimates step length with 5.49% mean absolute percentage error and provides accurate real-time feedback to the user.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 105-130
E. S. Melkumyan

The painful consequences of political, economic and social shocks provoked by the Arab Spring forced the political elites of the Middle Eastern states to revisit traditional approaches to maintaining stability and security in the region. This inevitably aff ected the activities of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which was from the outset established in order to enhance cooperation between the countries of the region primarily in the fi eld of security. This paper attempts to identify the key milestones, factors and trends that have shaped the GCC decision-making process in the security sphere over the past 10 years since the beginning of the Arab Spring. The author shows that the Arab Awakening has encouraged the GCC member-states to deepen military-political integration, aimed at strengthening their defense capabilities, as well as their abilities to respond to external and internal challenges. The author notes that the GCC countries still view Iran as the main source of all these threats; moreover, con-sidering substantial strengthening of Iran’s infl uence in the Middle East their position has even hardened. Tehran is accused of meddling in the internal aff airs of the GCC member-states, supporting illegal Shiite groups operating on their territory, and instigating religious discord. In this context, it is quite natural that the Iran’s nuclear programme is of particular concern to the GCC. At the same time, the author emphasizes, that although the GCC member-states declare common approach towards Iran, their practical actions can vary signifi cantly. In particular, it was Qatar which opposed an excessively hard-line approach towards Iran. This fact, as well as accusations against Doha of supporting terrorist and extremist groups, led to two crises that shook the GCC in the 2010s. However, the fact that these crises have been eventually settled shows that security issues still press regional actors towards strengthening the capacities of the GCC. Especially since military threats have been compounded by a new threat — of the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The author concludes that this new threat, which has already incited the GCC to promote cooperation in a health sector, will also strengthen the member-states’ focus on various nonmilitary challenges including epidemiological and environmental ones.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Stefano Anzani ◽  
Loreta Cannito ◽  
Fabio Bellia ◽  
Alberto Di Domenico ◽  
Bernardo Dell’Osso ◽  

Individual differences in temporal and probabilistic discounting are associated with a wide range of life outcomes in literature. Traditional approaches have focused on impulsiveness and cognitive control skills, on goal-oriented personality traits as well as on the psychological perception of time. More recently, literature started to consider the role of social and contextual factors in discounting behavior. Between others, higher generalized trust in human beings and specific trust in people who will deliver the future/probabilistic rewards have been related to a stronger willingness to wait and to assume risk. Moreover, the tendency to trust others has been associated with the oxytocin receptor gene regulation that can be modified by life experiences. In this perspective, we hypothesized that differences in the tendency to wait and to take risks for a more desirable reward according to the proposer’s trustworthiness could be related to a different level of DNA methylation at the oxytocin receptor gene. Findings confirmed that participants are less willing to wait and to risk when the proposer is considered highly untrustworthy and revealed how higher oxytocin receptor gene DNA methylation is associated with a stronger effect due to the presence of an untrustworthy proposer. Limits and future directions are outlined.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Marta Nisita Dewanggana ◽  
Clare Evangeline ◽  
Maurita Delia Ketty ◽  
Diana Elizabeth Waturangi ◽  
Yogiara ◽  

AbstractAmong food preservation methods, bacteriophage treatment can be a viable alternative method to overcome the drawbacks of traditional approaches. Bacteriophages are naturally occurring viruses that are highly specific to their hosts and have the capability to lyse bacterial cells, making them useful as biopreservation agents. This study aims to characterize and determine the application of bacteriophage isolated from Indonesian traditional Ready-to-Eat (RTE) food to control Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) population in various foods. Phage DW-EC isolated from Indonesian traditional RTE food called dawet with ETEC as its host showed a positive result by the formation of plaques (clear zone) in the bacterial host lawn. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results also showed that DW-EC can be suspected to belong to the Myoviridae family. Molecular characterization and bioinformatic analysis showed that DW-EC exhibited characteristics as promising biocontrol agents in food samples. Genes related to the lytic cycle, such as lysozyme and tail fiber assembly protein, were annotated. There were also no signs of lysogenic genes among the annotation results. The resulting PHACTS data also indicated that DW-EC was leaning toward being exclusively lytic. DW-EC significantly reduced the ETEC population (P ≤ 0.05) in various food samples after two different incubation times (1 day and 6 days) in chicken meat (80.93%; 87.29%), fish meat (63.78%; 87.89%), cucumber (61.42%; 71.88%), tomato (56.24%; 74.51%), and lettuce (46.88%; 43.38%).

Lucas Woltmann ◽  
Claudio Hartmann ◽  
Dirk Habich ◽  
Wolfgang Lehner

AbstractCardinality estimation is a fundamental task in database query processing and optimization. As shown in recent papers, machine learning (ML)-based approaches may deliver more accurate cardinality estimations than traditional approaches. However, a lot of training queries have to be executed during the model training phase to learn a data-dependent ML model making it very time-consuming. Many of those training or example queries use the same base data, have the same query structure, and only differ in their selective predicates. To speed up the model training phase, our core idea is to determine a predicate-independent pre-aggregation of the base data and to execute the example queries over this pre-aggregated data. Based on this idea, we present a specific aggregate-based training phase for ML-based cardinality estimation approaches in this paper. As we are going to show with different workloads in our evaluation, we are able to achieve an average speedup of 90 with our aggregate-based training phase and thus outperform indexes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Denis Trček

AbstractUbiquitous digitization enables promising options for cultural heritage preservation. Therefore, a new approach is presented that considers deployment scenarios by linking heritage science to tourism. Such an approach is necessary because neither technology nor society views can be treated separately to obtain deployable solutions of a wider social, and even national importance. Clearly, while the traditional approaches to cultural heritage preservation will remain a gold standard, they will be increasingly complemented by digital preservation techniques. Thus, based on practical implementations and lessons learnt in other areas, this multidisciplinary framework paper analyses existing disruptive information technologies deployments. In line with the findings it presents a novel technological architecture tailored to the needs of cultural heritage preservation that deploys an open blockchain architecture. The architecture preserves the advantages of traditional blockchains, which made this technology so important, while enabling energy efficient implementations that can be deployed in mobile applications. By additionally using the contribution-ware principle it links it to tourism, where the identification of users focused incentives and business models play a central role. It is obvious that tourism is a good candidate in such preservation efforts due to the organic links between it and cultural heritage and can support further developments in the heritage preservation domain.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Mohammad Moradi ◽  
Mohammad Reza Keyvanpour

Purpose Image annotation plays an important role in image retrieval process, especially when it comes to content-based image retrieval. In order to compensate the intrinsic weakness of machines in performing cognitive task of (human-like) image annotation, leveraging humans’ knowledge and abilities in the form of crowdsourcing-based annotation have gained momentum. Among various approaches for this purpose, an innovative one is integrating the annotation process into the CAPTCHA workflow. In this paper, the current state of the research works in the field and experimental efficiency analysis of this approach are investigated.Design/methodology/approach At first, and with the aim of presenting a current state report of research studies in the field, a comprehensive literature review is provided. Then, several experiments and statistical analyses are conducted to investigate how CAPTCHA-based image annotation is reliable, accurate and efficient.Findings In addition to study of current trends and best practices for CAPTCHA-based image annotation, the experimental results demonstrated that despite some intrinsic limitations on leveraging the CAPTCHA as a crowdsourcing platform, when the challenge, i.e. annotation task, is selected and designed appropriately, the efficiency of CAPTCHA-based image annotation can outperform traditional approaches. Nonetheless, there are several design considerations that should be taken into account when the CAPTCHA is used as an image annotation platform.Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to analyze different aspects of the titular topic through exploration of the literature and experimental investigation. Therefore, it is anticipated that the outcomes of this study can draw a roadmap for not only CAPTCHA-based image annotation but also CAPTCHA-mediated crowdsourcing and even image annotation.

Xinrong Zhang ◽  
Yanghao Li ◽  
Yuxing Han ◽  
Jiangtao Wen

Video editing is a high-required job, for it requires skilled artists or workers equipped with plentiful physical strength and multidisciplinary knowledge, such as cinematography, aesthetics. Thus gradually, more and more researches focus on proposing semi-automatical and even fully automatical solutions to reduce workloads. Since those conventional methods are usually designed to follow some simple guidelines, they lack flexibility and capability to learn complex ones. Fortunately, the advances of computer vision and machine learning make up the shortages of traditional approaches and make AI editing feasible. There is no survey to conclude those emerging researches yet. This paper summaries the development history of automatic video editing, and especially the applications of AI in partial and full workflows. We emphasizes video editing and discuss related works from multiple aspects: modality, type of input videos, methology, optimization, dataset, and evaluation metric. Besides, we also summarize the progresses in image editing domain, i.e., style transferring, retargeting, and colorization, and seek for the possibility to transfer those techniques to video domain. Finally, we give a brief conclusion about this survey and explore some open problems.

2022 ◽  
Mohammadhassan Gholami-Shabani ◽  
Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi ◽  
Fatemehsadat Jamzivar ◽  
Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

Fungal enzymes that catalyze different types of biochemical reactions play a significant role in modern industry by improving existing processes. Also, the use of enzymes to replace some traditional toxic chemical or mechanical approaches helps decrease energy demand and environmental pollution. However, enzymes must be able to compete commercially with relatively low-priced traditional approaches. Meeting economical and commercial feasibility criteria depends on a number of enzymatic properties including the specificity to the substrate, stability in industrial enzymatic reaction conditions and catalytic efficiency. Fungi used as an enzyme manufacture host should be appropriate for industrial scale fermentation. Aspergillus species are being developed as one of the best enzyme manufacture factories due to their capability to secrete high quantities of enzymes suitable for industrial applications. The industrial importance of Aspergillus species also includes the progress and commercialization of new products derived from genetically engineered modified strains. Hence, the main aim of this chapter investigation is to analyze the secreted and cellular proteins from Aspergillus species and their application in industries.

Ankita Negi ◽  
Rajesh Kumar ◽  
Sushil Kumar Joshi ◽  
Arpita Negi ◽  
Bhuvnesh Kumar ◽  

The increasing number of efluents discharged from the source of water (urban, industrial, agricultural etc.), is resulting in a higher concentration of heavy metals in the source. Heavy metals have a density of over 5g/cm3 to the metals. These are toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and resistant in watery and non-aquatic environments and impact water and non-water bodies seriously by substituting the basic metals of the same function. The extraction from the wastewater can be done in numerous techniques for example using an ion replacement, membrane filtration, osmosis, etc. This study discusses the adverse effects of heavy metals on the human body, the benefits of biosorption over traditional approaches for removal of heavy metals, the different biosorbents used to extract heavy metals and concerning issues regarding its commercial use, offering a wider viewpoint for the diversity of biosorbents and utilization of biosorption technique. It is evident from the profound literature survey that pH, biosorbent particle size, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, presence of chelating ligands etc. are some factors that affect the rate and extent of biosorption. 

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