container terminals
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Wen-Kai K Hsu ◽  
Hui-Huang Tai ◽  
Nguyen Tan Huynh ◽  
Jun-Wei C Chen

This paper aims to evaluate the investment environment in container terminals (CTs) in one seaport from the attitudes of both terminal operators (TOs) and port companies (PCs). Evaluation criteria (ECs) regarding the investment environment in CTs are first created based on the prior literature and the CTs’ operational characteristics. A knowledge gap model based on an improved fuzzy AHP approach is then developed to assess the perceived differences on the ECs between TOs and PCs, by which the PCs managers could formulate practical policies to improve their investment environment in CTs. As an empirical study, the Taiwan International Port Corporation (TIPC) and its terminal operators in Kaohsiung port are examined to verify the research model. Results indicate that ECs with higher knowledge gap for TIPC include: Intra-port coopetition, Number of shipping carriers, and Business tax. Based on the result, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 536
Jungwaun Jeh ◽  
Jungwoo Nam ◽  
Minseop Sim ◽  
Yulseong Kim ◽  
Youngran Shin

Shipping and port industries are undergoing rapid environmental changes because of the reorganization of carrier alliances, enlargement of ships, and an increase in global uncertainty. Thus, the sustainable operation of container terminals requires a new assessment of port efficiency and measures to enhance efficient operation. Hence, we classified 21 global terminal operators (GTOs) into stevedore, carrier, and hybrid GTOs based on their operation characteristics and derived a sustainable container terminal operation method using data envelopment analysis efficiency and Malmquist productivity index analysis. The results showed that stevedore GTOs exhibited improved efficiency when the terminal infrastructure was expanded. However, the returns to scale and technical change factors in the productivity change trend decreased. Meanwhile, the objective of carrier GTOs is cost reduction, unlike stevedore and hybrid GTOs, which focus on generating profits. Consequently, carrier GTOs were the most inefficient with little intention to improve efficiency. A systematic efficiency improvement strategy through the acquisition of a terminal share was effective for hybrid GTOs. However, similar to stevedore GTOs, investment in technical change was insufficient for hybrid GTOs. The efficiency analysis we conducted for each operation characteristic is expected to provide useful basic data for establishing efficiency improvement strategies for every GTO.

2022 ◽  
pp. 67-99
Daniel Londono-Bernal ◽  
Adil Hammadi ◽  
Torsten Reiners

Container terminals play an important role in linking regional and continental areas for the exchange of goods. Port authorities have to provide their services under competitive prices and service levels to customers. This increasing competition pushes feeder ports to improve their processes. The goal is to increase the port capacity to deal with the increasing demand for containers and, at the same time, to reduce the environmental impact and operative costs. The authors address the gap in the literature regarding alternatives for feeder ports. They analyse best practices adopted in international terminals and evaluate the implementation in feeder ports. They apply a quantitative approach using the simulation software AnyLogic. The model uses market data to analyse the vessel unloading process at the berth. Moreover, an alternative to reduce the CO2 emissions for diesel equipment is presented. A flowchart for the vessel unloading and loading operations is proposed that includes the strategies to increase capacity and efficiency of operations and the utilisation of equipment.

2021 ◽  
Ruiyu Li ◽  
Haifeng Fang ◽  
Guodong Wang ◽  
Qingfang Ma

This study accounts current energy consumption of various types of equipments in Chinese container terminals through investigating typical terminals; compares and analyzes the clean energy application technologies from the perspectives of technical level, investment cost, and others; on this basis, construct the predictive model of energy consumption structure, and uses scenario analysis to carry out energy consumption predictions under each scenario and analyzes the effect of policy intervention, technological development and other factors. According to the predictive results, this study holds that in order to optimize energy structure of container terminal, container terminals should strongly promote the application of clean energy to port machinery instead of fuel on the basis of the industrial development and cost reduction of high-power and large-capacity power batteries; at the same time, strengthen policy encouragement and guidance are needed.

T Y Tsai ◽  
H H Tai

Numerous conventional container ports in East Asia are evolving from intercontinental into regional hub ports. This study adopted the Port of Kaohsiung as an example of competition with neighboring ports. The results of this study demonstrated that the Port of Kaohsiung is still a competitive docking port on trans-Pacific trunk routes for North America, despite facing external threats (e.g., upsizing of ships, lack of new deep-water terminals, and new strategic alliances affecting terminal operations), overall shipping cost considerations (e.g., container volume, different ship sizes, and port selection), and increasingly intense competition with neighboring ports. Under such circumstances, the Port of Kaohsiung must keep pace with container ship upsizing, sufficiently increase deep-water terminal capacity, and improve its existing container terminals’ operating efficiency to attract route deployment and larger container ships and thereby maintain its current advantages and position as a regional hub port.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2131 (3) ◽  
pp. 032062
Yu Ezhov ◽  
I Zub ◽  
A Zhuravlev

Abstract Efficiency of handling equipment reduces the service time of vehicles arriving at the container terminal. A simulation model of the operation of handling equipment allows reducing the time for diagnosis handling technique with its failure. The model constructed by means of apparatus of Petri Nets the formalism of Petri Nets provides the precision of definitions and reflects the structural and logical connection of the simulated events. The visualization and simplicity of Petri Nets allows the technician has no special training to use these models. This paper examines the reach stacker model, these types of machines that used in container terminals. A Petri Net simulating the operation of the reach stacker – hierarchical, has a built-in network positions. Hierarchy of networks identified position to ensure secure operation techniques, conflict situation, and analyzed solutions. Position having the chips are nodes, which can cause failures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Qingfeng Huang ◽  
Yage Huang ◽  
Zhiwei Zhang ◽  
Yujie Zhang ◽  
Weijian Mi ◽  

Truck-lifting accidents are common in container-lifting operations. Previously, the operation sites are needed to arrange workers for observation and guidance. However, with the development of automated equipment in container terminals, an automated accident detection method is required to replace manual workers. Considering the development of vision detection and tracking algorithms, this study designed a vision-based truck-lifting prevention system. This system uses a camera to detect and track the movement of the truck wheel hub during the operation to determine whether the truck chassis is being lifted. The hardware device of this system is easy to install and has good versatility for most container-lifting equipment. The accident detection algorithm combines convolutional neural network detection, traditional image processing, and a multitarget tracking algorithm to calculate the displacement and posture information of the truck during the operation. The experiments show that the measurement accuracy of this system reaches 52 mm, and it can effectively distinguish the trajectories of different wheel hubs, meeting the requirements for detecting lifting accidents.

2021 ◽  
Jian-yu Ke ◽  
Fynnwin Prager ◽  
Jose Martinez ◽  
Chris Cagle

This study explores the question of whether California's freight system is staying competitive with other US regions. A novel analytical framework compares supply chain performance metrics across multiple US states and regions for seaports, airports, highways, freight rail service, and distribution centers by combining the Performance Evaluation Matrix (PEM), Competitive Position Matrix (CPM), and Business Process Management (BPM) approaches. Analysis of industry data and responses from structured interviews with 30 freight industry experts across 5 transportation sectors suggests that California's freight system is competitive for seaports, airports, and freight rail; however, highways and distribution centers have room for improvement with respect to travel time reliability and operation costs, and California should prioritize infrastructure investments here. To stay competitive with the Texas and North East regions, state investments could also expand seaport container terminals and air cargo handling facilities, improve intermodal port connections and management of flows of chassis, container trucks, empty containers to ameliorate cargo backlogs and congestion on highways, at the ports, and at warehouses. The state could also invest in inland ports, transporting goods by rail directly from seaports to the Inland Empire or Central Valley.

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