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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-247
Kun Liu ◽  
Wanjing Yu ◽  
Yaoyao Tang ◽  
Chao Chen

Background: Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, whose pathogenesis involves a variety of factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhizin (Gly) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and its action mechanism. Methods: Gly (20 µM) was used to treat bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells stimulated with LPS. The expression of SRC and miR-146b-5p in BEAS-2B cells was modified by the respective transfections with pcDNA-SRC, miR-146b-5p mimic and miR-146b-5p inhibitor. STRING and Starbase online databases were used to predict the relationship between Gly, miR-146b-5p and SRC. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the binding of miR-146b-5p to SRC. The viability, inflammatory response and apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells were examined by CCK-8, ELISA and Tunel assays respectively. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3), SRC and miR-146b-5p were detected by qRT-PCR or western blotting. Results: Gly inhibited LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. The interaction between Gly and SRC was predicted by STRING. SRC expression was high in BEAS-2B cells stimulated with LPS and could be negatively regulated by Gly. Overexpression of SRC effectively alleviated the inhibitory effect of Gly on LPS-induced damages in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, results of luciferase reporter assays verified SRC as a direct target gene of miR-146b-5p. The expression level of miR-146b-5p was downregulated by LPS stimulation in BEAS-2B cells. Gly decreased the expression of SRC in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. These results could all be reversed by miR-146b-5p knockdown. Conclusion: Gly decreases the expression of SRC by upregulating the level of miR-146b-5p, thus alleviating the inflammation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells treated with LPS. Our results provide a new theoretical basis for applying Gly to the clinical management of asthma.

2022 ◽  
pp. e90202113
Jamile Bubadué ◽  
Lucas Carneiro ◽  
Breno Mellado ◽  
Luana Mayer ◽  
Ricardo Lyra ◽  

The Mammal Collection of UENF was created in 2013 to document the biodiversity of northern Rio de Janeiro, and house voucher specimens collected during field research held by professors from the university and collaborating institutions. The collection currently holds 440 physical vouchers, mostly bats, and includes noteworthy records, such as the first Promops nasutus reported for the state of Rio de Janeiro. To these physical vouchers, we recently added a digital bioacoustics collection (343 files of bat distress calls) and a camera-trap multimedia collection (2683 videos or photographs of small to large-sized mammals). In this paper, we provide an overview of these holdings, and highlight and discuss the importance of regional scientific collections, along with the fundamental role of publishing their records in online databases in order to increase their visibility and scientific use. Finally, we discuss the importance of natural history collections to society, emphasizing that improving the awareness of the general public on the role of these collections to scientific development will be crucial for their conservation over the next centuries.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 341
Sandra Martín-Peláez ◽  
Naomi Cano-Ibáñez ◽  
Miguel Pinto-Gallardo ◽  
Carmen Amezcua-Prieto

The gut microbiota is a key factor in the correct development of the gastrointestinal immune system. Studies have found differences between the gut microbiota of newborns delivered by cesarean section compared to those vaginally delivered. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ingestion of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics during pregnancy and/or lactation on the development of the gut microbiota of the C-section newborns. We selected experimental studies in online databases from their inception to October 2021. Of the 83 records screened, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The probiotics used belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus, or a combination of those, with dosages varying between 2 × 106 and 9 × 1011 CFU per day, and were consumed during pregnancy and/or lactation. Probiotic strains were combined with galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, or bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides in the synbiotic formulas. Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic interventions led to beneficial gut microbiota in cesarean-delivered newborns, closer to that in vaginally delivered newborns, especially regarding Bifidobacterium colonization. This effect was more evident in breastfed infants. The studies indicate that this beneficial effect is achieved when the interventions begin soon after birth, especially the restoration of bifidobacterial population. Changes in the infant microbial ecosystem due to the interventions seem to continue after the end of the intervention in most of the studies. More interventional studies are needed to elucidate the optimal synbiotic combinations and the most effective strains and doses for achieving the optimal gut microbiota colonization of C-section newborns.

Hisham Abdullah Almottowa ◽  
Abdulmohsen Yaseer Alkhars ◽  
Maram Hussam Hassan ◽  
Hamad Adel Alhamad ◽  
Saad Munawwikh Alshammari ◽  

Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are two major inflammatory disorders of the intestinal wall collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most significant and grave consequence of IBD and is preceded by dysplasia in majority of the cases. In this review we aim to discuss the various types of dysplasia found in patients with CRC due to IBD. A thorough literature search was conducted in online databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, from which all studies published in the last ten years were included in this review. The major development in diagnostic procedures and visualization modalities have aided our understanding of dysplasia, which is now known to be the strongest predictor and marker for CRC development. However, the unpredictable behavior and progression of dysplasia still warrants vigilant surveillance. Dysplasia has been classified on histological characteristics using grades of dysplasia from ‘negative for dysplasia’ to ‘high grade dysplasia’. On visibility via an endoscope from ‘visible dysplasia’ to ‘invisible dysplasia’ and macroscopic features of ‘conventional dysplasia’ and ‘non-conventional dysplasia’. No single classification can be utilized to define the stage of dysplasia and more importantly predict its progression and outcome of CRC. Using evidence-based medicine an integrated classification expanding on a management algorithm must be formulated by a panel of experts to steer management of the disease. A multidisciplinary, tailored approach with a strong emphasis on regular and timely surveillance to ensure early detection of CRC can enhance quality of life and patient outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Junhong Li ◽  
Huanhuan Fan ◽  
Xingwang Zhou ◽  
Yufan Xiang ◽  
Yanhui Liu

The urokinase-type plasminogen activator(PLAU) and its receptor PLAUR participate in a series of cell physiological activities on the extracellular surface. Abnormal expression of PLAU and PLAUR is associated with tumorigenesis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of PLAU/PLAUR transcription expression in glioma and to explore how they affect the generation and progression of glioma. In this study, online databases are applied, such as Oncomine, GEPIA, CGGA, cBioPortal, and LinkedOmics. Overexpression of PLAU/PLAUR was found to be significantly associated with clinical variables including age, tumor type, WHO grade, histology, IDH-1 mutation, and 1p19q status. PLAU and PLAUR had a high correlation in transcriptional expression levels. High expression of PLAU and PLAUR predicted a poor prognosis in primary glioma and recurrent glioma patients, especially in lower grade gliomas. Cox regression analysis indicated that high expression of PLAU and PLAUR were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall survival in glioma patients. In gene co-expression network analysis PLAU and PLAUR and their co-expression genes were found to be involved in inflammatory activities and tumor-related signaling pathways. In conclusion, PLAU and PLAUR could be promising prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets of glioma patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 766
Giuseppe Celeste ◽  
Mariangela Lazoi ◽  
Mattia Mangia ◽  
Giovanna Mangialardi

The construction sector is in continuous evolution due to the digitalisation and integration into daily activities of the building information modelling approach and methods that impact on the overall life cycle. This study investigates the topic of BIM/GIS integration with the adoption of ontologies and metamodels, providing a critical analysis of the existing literature. Ontologies and metamodels share several similarities and could be combined for potential solutions to address BIM/GIS integration for complex tasks, such as asset management, where heterogeneous sources of data are involved. The research adopts a systematic literature review (SLR), providing a formal approach to retrieve scientific papers from dedicated online databases. The results found are then analysed, in order to describe the state of the art and suggest future research paths, which is useful for both researchers and practitioners. From the SLR, it emerged that several studies address ontologies as a promising way to overcome the semantic barriers of the BIM/GIS integration. On the other hand, metamodels (and MDE and MDA approaches, in general) are rarely found in relation to the integration topic. Moreover, the joint application of ontologies and metamodels for BIM/GIS applications is an unexplored field. The novelty of this work is the proposal of the joint application of ontologies and metamodels to perform BIM/GIS integration, for the development of software and systems for asset management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Murilo R. Santos ◽  
Luis C. Dias ◽  
Maria C. Cunha ◽  
João R. Marques

This paper is a systematic review of studies that used multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to address plastic waste management. A literature search for scientific articles in online databases (Web of Science and Scopus) enabled us to identify 20 relevant papers from 2008 to 2021, spanning case studies in three continents. These studies focus on: plastics as a resource (material), plastics as a product (reverse logistics), and plastics as a problem (pollution). Content analysis methodology was used, with the focus being on how the authors used MCDA for managing plastic waste, which has relevance for researchers and practitioners. Alternative solutions were found for the selection of disposal methods for almost all types of plastic categorized in this review. The most popular method was AHP, followed by TOPSIS, outranking methods, MAUT/MAVT and simple weighted sums, with some studies including more than one method. The choice of criteria spanned operational (mostly), but also environmental and economic aspects to evaluate the alternatives. Less frequently, one finds criteria related to social, managerial, and political aspects. The weighting of the criteria was performed mainly by consulting experts, followed by decision makers. Representatives of the affected population or other stakeholders have been consulted only on a few occasions. The authors of the studies consider their application of MCDA was successful, highlighting mainly the importance of being able to encompass different dimensions in the evaluation of the alternatives and the transparency of the process. In most cases, a winning alternative emerged clearly, which sometimes was a combination of multiple strategies. We also report other recommendations of these authors concerning marine and terrestrial plastic waste management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Prasansah Shrestha ◽  
Min-Su Kim ◽  
Ermal Elbasani ◽  
Jeong-Dong Kim ◽  
Tae-Jin Oh

Abstract Background Metabolism including anabolism and catabolism is a prerequisite phenomenon for all living organisms. Anabolism refers to the synthesis of the entire compound needed by a species. Catabolism refers to the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy. Many metabolic pathways are undisclosed and many organism-specific enzymes involved in metabolism are misplaced. When predicting a specific metabolic pathway of a microorganism, the first and foremost steps is to explore available online databases. Among many online databases, KEGG and MetaCyc pathway databases were used to deduce trehalose metabolic network for bacteria Variovorax sp. PAMC28711. Trehalose, a disaccharide, is used by the microorganism as an alternative carbon source. Results While using KEGG and MetaCyc databases, we found that the KEGG pathway database had one missing enzyme (maltooligosyl-trehalose synthase, EC The MetaCyc pathway database also had some enzymes. However, when we used RAST to annotate the entire genome of Variovorax sp. PAMC28711, we found that all enzymes that were missing in KEGG and MetaCyc databases were involved in the trehalose metabolic pathway. Conclusions Findings of this study shed light on bioinformatics tools and raise awareness among researchers about the importance of conducting detailed investigation before proceeding with any further work. While such comparison for databases such as KEGG and MetaCyc has been done before, it has never been done with a specific microbial pathway. Such studies are useful for future improvement of bioinformatics tools to reduce limitations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Dawit Getachew Assefa ◽  
Eden Dagnachew Zeleke ◽  
Wondwosen Molla ◽  
Nebiyu Mengistu ◽  
Ahmedin Sefa ◽  

Abstract Background The efficacies of artemisinin based combinations have been excellent in Africa, but also comprehensive evidence regarding their safety would be important. The aim of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) compared to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria among children in Africa. Methods A systematic literature search was done to identify relevant articles from online databases PubMed/ MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Center for Clinical Trial database (CENTRAL) for retrieving randomized control trials comparing safety of DHA-PQ and AL for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria among children in Africa. The search was performed from August 2020 to 30 April 2021. Using Rev-Man software (V5.4.1), the extracted data from eligible studies were pooled as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results In this review, 18 studies were included, which involved 10,498 participants were included. Compared to AL, DHA-PQ was associated with a slightly higher frequency of early vomiting (RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.50; participants = 7796; studies = 10; I2 = 0%, high quality of evidence), cough (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11; participants = 8013; studies = 13; I2 = 0%, high quality of evidence), and diarrhoea (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.31; participants = 6841; studies = 11; I2 = 8%, high quality of evidence) were more frequent in DHA-PQ treatment arm. Conclusion From this review, it can be concluded that early vomiting, diarrhoea, and cough were common were significantly more frequent in patients who were treated with the DHA-PQ than that of AL, and both drugs are well tolerated. More studies comparing AL with DHA-PQ are needed to determine the comparative safety of these drugs.

2022 ◽  
Xue-mei Wei ◽  
Xiao-hong Yang

Abstract In recent years, investigators have been striving to explore the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pneumonia disease (COPD). Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) has been identified as a candidate susceptibility gene. Our aim is to synthesize and include all evidences to get a more comprehensive result. We searched 6 online databases- PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, EMBASE, CNKI. All included studies were published before October 1, 2021. We used Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) to evaluate the bias of each study. Meta-analysis methods were conducted to evaluate the pooled result. A total of 14 comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis, for rs13118928 polymorphism, significant associations were observed in 5 genetic models, (A vs. G, OR=1.18, 95CI%=[1.07-1.30], P=0.0006; AA vs. GG, OR=1.56, 95CI%=[1.22-2.00], P=0.0004; AG vs. GG, OR=1.28, 95CI%=[1.05-1.55], P=0.01; AA+AG vs. GG, OR=1.36, 95CI%=[1.12-1.65], P=0.002; AA vs. AG+GG, OR=1.18, 95CI%=[1.05-1.33], P=0.006). as for rs1828591, there were also significant associations detected in the overall population, (A vs. G, OR=1.12, 95CI%=[1.05-1.19], P=0.0003; AA vs. GG, OR=1.27, 95CI%=[1.04-1.56], P=0.02; AG vs. GG, OR=1.25, 95CI%=[1.03-1.51], P=0.02; AA+AG vs. GG, OR=1.26, 95CI%=[1.04-1.53], P=0.02; AA vs. AG+GG, OR=1.10, 95CI%=[1.01-1.19], P=0.03). This meta-analysis showed that the A allele in both rs13118928 and rs1828591 was turn out to be the risk allele in developing COPD. The result of Codominant genetic model, Dominant genetic model and Recessive genetic model remain the same.

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