state observer
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (12) ◽  
pp. 316
Xiao-Xia Yang ◽  
Yong-Ting Deng ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  
Jian-Li Wang

Abstract The high-precision requirements will always be constrained due to the complicated operating conditions of the ground-based telescope. Owing to various internal and external disturbances, it is necessary to study a control method, which should have a good ability on disturbance rejection and a good adaptability on system parameter variation. The traditional proportional-integral (PI) controller has the advantage of simple and easy adjustment, but it cannot deal with the disturbances well in different situations. This paper proposes a simplified active disturbance rejection control law, whose debugging is as simple as the PI controller, and with better disturbance rejection ability and parameter adaptability. It adopts a simplified second-order extended state observer (ESO) with an adjustable parameter to accommodate the significant variation of the inertia during the different design stages of the telescope. The gain parameter of the ESO can be adjusted online with a recursive least square estimating method once the system parameter has changed significantly. Thus, the ESO can estimate the total disturbances timely and the controller will compensate them accordingly. With the adjustable parameter of the ESO, the controller can always achieve better performance in different applications of the telescope. The simulation and experimental verification of the control law was conducted on a 1.2-meter ground based telescope. The results verify the necessity of adjusting the parameter of the ESO, and demonstrate better disturbance rejection ability in a large range of speed variations during the design stages of the telescope.

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2113750119
Arthur N. Montanari ◽  
Chao Duan ◽  
Luis A. Aguirre ◽  
Adilson E. Motter

The quantitative understanding and precise control of complex dynamical systems can only be achieved by observing their internal states via measurement and/or estimation. In large-scale dynamical networks, it is often difficult or physically impossible to have enough sensor nodes to make the system fully observable. Even if the system is in principle observable, high dimensionality poses fundamental limits on the computational tractability and performance of a full-state observer. To overcome the curse of dimensionality, we instead require the system to be functionally observable, meaning that a targeted subset of state variables can be reconstructed from the available measurements. Here, we develop a graph-based theory of functional observability, which leads to highly scalable algorithms to 1) determine the minimal set of required sensors and 2) design the corresponding state observer of minimum order. Compared with the full-state observer, the proposed functional observer achieves the same estimation quality with substantially less sensing and fewer computational resources, making it suitable for large-scale networks. We apply the proposed methods to the detection of cyberattacks in power grids from limited phase measurement data and the inference of the prevalence rate of infection during an epidemic under limited testing conditions. The applications demonstrate that the functional observer can significantly scale up our ability to explore otherwise inaccessible dynamical processes on complex networks.

Rachid Mansouri ◽  
Maamar Bettayeb ◽  
Ubaid M Al-Saggaf ◽  
Abdulrahman U Alsaggaf ◽  
Muhammad Moinuddin

In this paper, based on the extended state observer (ESO) and on a fractional order controller (FOC), composed of an integer order PID cascaded with a fractional order filter (FOF), a new control scheme for an n th order integer plant is proposed. The ESO is used to estimate and cancel the unknown internal dynamics and the external disturbance. Afterwards, an FOC is designed to resolve the set-point tracking problem. An analytical and systematic method is proposed to design the FOC. This method is based on the Internal Model Control (IMC) and the Bode’s Ideal Transfer Function (BITF). Therefore, the proposed control structure improves the robustness and performance of the traditional linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC), especially for the open-loop gain variation. In addition, since the system be controlled is an n th order, a general form of the BITF is also proposed. Numerical simulations on a nonlinear model and experimental results on a cart-pendulum system design illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested ESO-PID-FOF scheme for the disturbance rejection, the set-point tracking and robustness. A comparison with the results obtained using the standard LADRC is also presented.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 41
Zhen Zhang ◽  
Yinan Guo ◽  
Xianfang Song

This paper develops a sliding-mode control with an improved nonlinear extended state observer (SMC-INESO) for the rotation system of a hydraulic roofbolter with dead-zones, uncertain gain, and disturbances, with the purpose of improving tracking performance. Firstly, the rotation system is modeled to compensate for dead-zone nonlinearity. Then, we present an improved nonlinear extended state observer to estimate disturbances of the rotation system in real time. Moreover, a proportional-integral-differential sliding-mode surface is introduced and an improved sliding-mode reaching law is designed. Based on this, a sliding-mode control law is developed. In order to eliminate the influence of estimation error and uncertain gain, we design two adaptation laws based on the sliding-mode surface and the estimated states. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed SMC-INESO is verified through comparative simulation studies.

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