Pi Controller
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Fahd A. Banakhr ◽  
Mohamed I. Mosaad

AbstractSolar photovoltaic (PV) energy has met great attention in the electrical power generation field for its many advantages in both on and off-grid applications. The requirement for higher proficiency from the PV system to reap the energy requires maximum power point tracking techniques (MPPT). This paper presents an adaptive MPPT of a stand-alone PV system using an updated PI controller optimized by harmony search (HS). A lookup table is formed for the temperature and irradiance with the corresponding voltage at MPP (VMPP). This voltage is considered as the updated reference voltage required for MPP at each temperature and irradiance. The difference between this updated reference voltage at MPP and the variable PV voltage due to changing the environmental conditions is used to stimulate PI controller optimized by HS to update the duty cycle (D) of the DC–DC converter. The temperature, irradiance, and corresponding duty cycle at MPP are utilized to convert this MPP technique into an adaptive one without the PI controllers' need. An experimental implementation of the proposed adaptive MPPT is introduced to test the simulation results' validity at different irradiance and temperature levels.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6663
Mohammad Ali ◽  
Mohd Tariq ◽  
Deepak Upadhyay ◽  
Shahbaz Ahmad Khan ◽  
Kuntal Satpathi ◽  

In this paper, a twelve-band hysteresis control is applied to a recent thirteen-level asymmetrical inverter topology by employing a robust proportional-integral (PI) controller whose parameters are decided online by genetic algorithm (GA). The asymmetrical inverter topology can generate thirteen levels of output voltage incorporating only ten switches and exhibits boosting capability. A 12-band hysteresis current control strategy is applied to ensure the satisfactory operation of the inverter. It is designed to provide a sinusoidal line current at the unity power factor. The tuning of the PI controller is achieved by a nature inspired GA. Comparative analysis of the results obtained after application of the GA and the conventional Ziegler–Nichols method is also performed. The efficacy of the proposed control on WE topology is substantiated in the MATLAB Simulink environment and was further validated through experimental/real-time implementation using DSC TMS320F28379D and Typhoon HIL real-time emulator (Typhoon-HIL-402).

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11194
B. Srikanth Goud ◽  
Ch. Rami Reddy ◽  
Mohit Bajaj ◽  
Ehab E. Elattar ◽  
Salah Kamel

The integration of hybrid renewable energy sources (HRESs) into the grid is currently being encouraged to meet the increasing demand for electric power and reduce fossil fuels which are causing environmental-related problems. Integration of HRESs into the grid can create some power quality (PQ) problems. To mitigate PQ problems and improve the performance of grid-connected HRESs some flexible devices should be used. This paper presents a distributed power flow controller (DPFC), as a type of flexible device to mitigate some PQ problems, including voltage sag, swell, disruptions, and eliminating the harmonics in a hybrid power system (HPS). The HPS presented in this work comprises a photo voltaic (PV) system, wind turbine (WT) and battery energy storage system (BESS). As a result, black widow optimization (BWO) with DPFC with real and reactive power (DPFC-PQ) is built in this paper to solve the PQ issues in HRES systems. The main aim of the work is to mitigate PQ problems and compensate for load demand in the HRES scheme. The controller used to drive this DPFC-PQ is a fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller optimized by the black widow optimization (BWO) technique. To assess the capability of BWO in fine-tuning the FOPID controller parameters, twelve optimization techniques were presented: P&O, PSO, Cuckoo, GA, GSA, BBO, Whale, ESA, RFA, ASO, and EVORFA. Additionally, a comparison between the FOPID controller and the classical PI controller is introduced. The results showed that the proposed BWO-FOPID controller for DFPC had mitigated the PQ problems in grid-connected HRESs. The system’s performance with the presented BWO-FOPID controller is compared with eleven optimization techniques used to optimize the FOPID controller and also compared with the conventional PI controller. The design of the proposed system is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and performances were analyzed.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 6381
Krzysztof Kołek ◽  
Andrzej Firlit

This paper presents an algorithm for finding the optimal control for a current controller that operates as a part of a control system of a shunt active power filter. The algorithm is based upon the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions for finding an optimal value where control signal is limited and constraints create a cube. The explicit solution of the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker problem is presented and simplified calculations are given to lower calculation complexity. The presented Karush–Kuhn–Tucker algorithm is compared with a classical PI controller. It is given the algorithm for finding the optimal parameters of the PI controller and the behavior of the PI controller is compared with the presented algorithm. Attention has been paid to the saturation of controllers in commutation states of load currents, which has a negative impact on the final performance of the controllers and the controlled shunt active power filter. The paper also presents the software and hardware platforms applied to run the presented algorithms in real-time. For both controllers, the shunt active power filter response is shown using real experimental results. The results of the experiments prove better behavior regarding the presented algorithm, especially in the case of commutative load currents, where the output signals from other regulators become saturated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Johan Sund ◽  
Christer Sandberg ◽  
Anders Karlström ◽  
Göran Thungström ◽  
Per Engstrand

Abstract In this study, the effect of process- and online analyser configuration on pulp quality control is explored. The following parameters were included: analyser sampling interval, time delay, measurement error magnitude, and latency chest residence time. Using different values of parameters in a process model, a range of configurations were constructed. For each configuration, the achievable control performance was evaluated using an optimization approach. PI controller settings were chosen based on minimization of the integrated absolute error (IAE) in pulp quality after an input step disturbance. The results show that reducing the sampling interval improves performance also when the interval is smaller than the chest residence time or the analyser delay. Moreover, reducing the chest residence time can reduce the IAE by up to 40 %. However, reducing the residence time to lower than 1/3 of the sampling interval does not improve performance. Further improvement is possible if the analyser delay is reduced. The compromise between reducing the IAE and avoiding creating variation by acting on measurement error has a strong influence on the results. In conclusion, pulp quality control performance can be improved significantly by making changes to the studied configuration parameters.

Smrutiranjan Nayak ◽  
Sanjeeb Kumar Kar ◽  
Subhransu Sekhar Dash

In continually increasing area and structure of modern power system having burden demand uncertainties, the use of knowledgeable and vigorous frequency power strategy is essential for the satisfactory functioning of the Power system. A combined fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (CFPID) controller is suggested for frequency supervision of the power system. To optimize the controller parameters, a review of sine and cosine work adjusted improved whale optimization algorithm (SCiWOA) has been utilized. The next practical application of power-system frequency control is performed by designing a CFPID controller using the proposed SCiWOA technique for a smart grid system having inexhaustible sources like sun oriented, wind, photovoltaic and capacity gadgets like a battery, flywheel just as module electric vehicles. The first advantages of the SCiWOA tuned CFPID controller over hybrid-particle-swarm-optimization and pattern-search (hPSO-PS) adjusted fuzzy proportional-integral (FPI) controller, hybrid bacterial foraging optimization algorithm-particle swarm optimization (hBFOA-PSO) adjusted proportional-integral (PI) controller, genetic algorithm (GA) tuned proportional and integral (PI) controller, BFOA adjusted PI controller, jaya algoritm (JA) tuned PID with derivative filter (PIDN) controller and teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) tuned proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller are demonstrated for the two-area non-reheat thermal power system. The second advantages of the SCiWOA tuned CFPID controller over artificial-bee-colony (ABC) tuned PID controller, SOSA tuned PID controller and Firefly algorithm (FA) tuned PID controller are demonstrated for two-area reheat thermal power system. It is seen that SCiWOA based CFPID controller is more effective in controlling the recurrence comparative with PID regulator.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 10-19
Samar Abdulkareem AL-Hashemi ◽  
Ayad AL-Dujaili ◽  
Ahmed R. Ajel

Induction motors are widely used in commercial and industrial applications due to their robustness, high efficiency, low maintenance requirements and durability among other reasons. Consequently, their speed should be controlled for better performance. This paper describes utilization of a scalar speed control of a three-phase squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM) to control a motor’s speed using an integral sliding mode controller (ISMC). The controller was tested under various operating conditions. The results are compared with a case employing a conventional PI controller. It was found that speed control by ISMC has a 0.16 RPM steady-state error, 0.03 s to reach steady-state from a standstill, and a 5% overshoot. All of these are lower values as compared to the results of a conventional PI controller. In this paper, the robustness of each controller to uncertainties is checked. Simulation results show the advantages of ISMC control methods. The system is simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK R2017a.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (19) ◽  
pp. 2403
Habib Benbouhenni ◽  
Nicu Bizon

The main goal of this paper is to increase the active/reactive power extracted from variable-speed dual-rotor wind power (DRWP) based on doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) by optimizing its operation using advanced direct vector control. First, the dynamic modeling of different parts of the system is introduced. The DFIG is modeled in the Park reference system. After that, the control techniques are introduced in detail. Direct vector command (DVC) with four-level fuzzy pulse width modulation (FPWM) is used to control the rotor current, thereby controlling the reactive power and active power of the generator. Then, use the neural network design to replace the traditional proportional-integral (PI) controller. Finally, the Matlab/Simulink software is used for simulation to prove the effectiveness of the command strategy using 1.5 MW DRWP. The results show good performance in terms of response time, stability, and precision in following the reference under variable wind speed conditions. In addition, the total harmonic distortion (THD) value of stator current is about 0.13%, being a bit less than other THD values reported in the literature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 48-56
Margarita M. Blagoveshchenskaya ◽  
Mikhail V. Veselov

Frequency converters of asynchronous three-phase AC motors are widely used in industry, including food production. A thorough understanding of the technical capabilities of frequency converters contributes to their efficient use. This article discusses a technical comparison of two frequency converters of three-phase electric motors of the Russian company "OWEN" and the Danish company "DANFOSS" according to the criterion of the quality of regulation of the technological parameter. For comparison, a test bench was created, in which the devices were tested in turn, under the same conditions. During the preparation and implementation of testing, it turned out that the hardware capabilities of frequency converters for their use in regulating technological parameters are the same, and the parametric capabilities are different. The frequency converter of the "OWEN" company is equipped with a PI controller, and the frequency converter from "DANFOSS" is equipped with a PID controller. As the results of testing the devices show, despite 

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