Abiotic Stress
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2021 ◽  
Antt Htet Wai ◽  
Lae-Hyeon Cho ◽  
Muhammad Waseem ◽  
Do-jin Lee ◽  
Je-Min Lee ◽  

Abstract Background Alba (Acetylation lowers binding affinity) proteins are an ancient family of nucleic acid-binding proteins that function in gene regulation, RNA metabolism, mRNA translatability, developmental processes, and stress adaptation. However, comprehensive bioinformatics analysis on the Alba gene family of Solanum lycopersicum has not been reported previously.Results In the present study, we undertook the first comprehensive genome-wide characterization of the Alba gene family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We identified eight tomato Alba genes, which were classified into two groups: genes containing a single Alba domain and genes with a generic Alba domain and RGG/RG repeat motifs. Cis-regulatory elements and target sites for miRNAs, which function in plant development and stress responses, were prevalent in SlAlba genes. To explore the structure–function relationships of tomato Alba proteins, we predicted their 3D structures, highlighting their likely interactions with several putative ligands. Confocal microscopy revealed that SlAlba–GFP fusion proteins were localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm, consistent with putative roles in various signaling cascades. Expression profiling revealed the differential expression patterns of most SlAlba genes across diverse organs. SlAlba1 and SlAlba2 were predominantly expressed in flowers, whereas SlAlba5 expression peaked in 1 cm-diameter fruits. The SlAlba genes were differentially expressed (up- or downregulated) in response to different abiotic stresses. Furthermore, all but one of these genes were induced by abscisic acid treatment, pointing to their possible regulatory roles in stress tolerance via an abscisic acid-dependent pathway.Conclusions Our characterization of SlAlba genes should facilitate the discovery of additional genes associated with organ and fruit development as well as abiotic stress adaptation in tomato.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1103
Francesco Cristofano ◽  
Christophe El-Nakhel ◽  
Youssef Rouphael

Climate change is a pressing matter of anthropogenic nature to which agriculture contributes by abusing production inputs such as inorganic fertilizers and fertigation water, thus degrading land and water sources. Moreover, as the increase in the demand of food in 2050 is estimated to be 25 to 70% more than what is currently produced today, a sustainable intensification of agriculture is needed. Biostimulant substances are products that the EU states work by promoting growth, resistance to plant abiotic stress, and increasing produce quality, and may be a valid strategy to enhance sustainable agricultural practice. Presented in this review is a comprehensive look at the scientific literature regarding the widely used and EU-sanctioned biostimulant substances categories of silicon, seaweed extracts, protein hydrolysates, and humic substances. Starting from their origin, the modulation of plants’ hormonal networks, physiology, and stress defense systems, their in vivo effects are discussed on some of the most prominent vegetable species of the popular plant groupings of cucurbits, leafy greens, and nightshades. The review concludes by identifying several research areas relevant to biostimulant substances to exploit and enhance the biostimulant action of these substances and signaling molecules in horticulture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Weihuang Wu ◽  
Sheng Zhu ◽  
Liming Zhu ◽  
Dandan Wang ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  

Liriodendron chinense (Lchi) is a Magnoliaceae plant, which is a basic angiosperm left behind by the Pleistocene and mainly distributed in the south of the Yangtze River. Liriodendron hybrids has good wood properties and is widely used in furniture and in other fields. It is not clear if they can adapt to different environmental conditions, such as drought and high and low temperatures, and the molecular mechanisms for this adaptation are unknown. Among plant transcription factors (TFs), the MYB gene family is one of the largest and is often involved in stress or adversity response signaling, growth, and development. Therefore, studying the role of MYBTFs in regulating abiotic stress signaling, growth, and development in Lchi is helpful to promote afforestation in different environments. In our research, a genome-wide analysis of the LchiMYB gene family was performed, including the phylogenetic relationship tree, gene exon-intron structure, collinearity, and chromosomal position. According to the evolutionary tree, 190 LchiMYBs were divided into three main branches. LchiMYBs were evenly distributed across 19 chromosomes, with their collinearity, suggesting that segment duplication events may have contributed to LchiMYB gene expansion. Transcriptomes from eight tissues, 11 stages of somatic embryogenesis, and leaves after cold, heat, and drought stress were used to analyze the function of the MYB gene family. The results of tissue expression analysis showed that most LchiMYB genes regulated bark, leaf, bud, sepal, stigma, and stamen development, as well as the four important stages (ES3, ES4, ES9, and PL) of somatic embryogenesis. More than 60 LchiMYBs responded to heat, cold, and drought stress; some of which underwent gene duplication during evolution. LchiMYB3 was highly expressed under all three forms of stress, while LchiMYB121 was strongly induced by both cold and heat stress. Eight genes with different expression patterns were selected and verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments. The results suggested that these LchiMYBs may regulate Lchi growth development and resistance to abiotic stress. This study shows the cross-regulatory function of LchiMYBs in the growth and development, asexual reproduction, and abiotic resistance of Lchi. This information will prove pivotal to directing further studies on the biological function of Lchi MYBTFs in genetic improvement and abiotic stress response.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1182
Wei Su ◽  
Ali Raza ◽  
Ang Gao ◽  
Ziqi Jia ◽  
Yi Zhang ◽  

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important enzyme that acts as the first line of protection in the plant antioxidant defense system, involved in eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) under harsh environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the SOD gene family was yet to be reported in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Thus, a genome-wide investigation was carried out to identify the rapeseed SOD genes. The present study recognized 31 BnSOD genes in the rapeseed genome, including 14 BnCSDs, 11 BnFSDs, and six BnMSDs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SOD genes from rapeseed and other closely related plant species were clustered into three groups based on the binding domain with high bootstrap values. The systemic analysis exposed that BnSODs experienced segmental duplications. Gene structure and motif analysis specified that most of the BnSOD genes displayed a relatively well-maintained exon–intron and motif configuration within the same group. Moreover, we identified five hormones and four stress- and several light-responsive cis-elements in the promoters of BnSODs. Thirty putative bna-miRNAs from seven families were also predicted, targeting 13 BnSODs. Gene ontology annotation outcomes confirm the BnSODs role under different stress stimuli, cellular oxidant detoxification processes, metal ion binding activities, SOD activity, and different cellular components. Twelve BnSOD genes exhibited higher expression profiles in numerous developmental tissues, i.e., root, leaf, stem, and silique. The qRT-PCR based expression profiling showed that eight genes (BnCSD1, BnCSD3, BnCSD14, BnFSD4, BnFSD5, BnFSD6, BnMSD2, and BnMSD10) were significantly up-regulated under different hormones (ABA, GA, IAA, and KT) and abiotic stress (salinity, cold, waterlogging, and drought) treatments. The predicted 3D structures discovered comparable conserved BnSOD protein structures. In short, our findings deliver a foundation for additional functional investigations on the BnSOD genes in rapeseed breeding programs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (15) ◽  
pp. 7915
Tae-Houn Kim ◽  
Eun-Joo Park

Plants have evolutionarily established resistance responses to a variety of abiotic stress conditions, in which ABA mediates the integrated regulation of these stress responses. Numerous proteins function at the transcription level or at the protein level when contributing to controls of the ABA signaling process. Although osmotin is identified as a salt-inducible protein, its function in the abiotic stress response is yet to be elucidated. To examine the role of Arabidopsis OSMOTIN 34 (OSM34) in the ABA signaling pathway, a deletion mutant osm34 generated by a CRISPR/Cas9 system and the double mutant osm34 osml (osmotin 34-like) were analyzed for various ABA responses. Both osm34 and osm34 osml showed reduced levels of ABA responses in seeds and leaves. Moreover, proline level and expression of the proline biosynthesis gene P5CS1 was significantly reduced in osm34 osml. Interestingly, OSM34 binds to SKP2A, an F-Box protein whose transcription is induced by ABA. The protein stability of OSM34 was determined to be under the control of the 26S proteasome. In conclusion, our data suggest that OSM34 functions as a positive regulator in the generation of ABA responses and is under post-translational control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dongbin Chen ◽  
Junhua Li ◽  
Fuchao Jiao ◽  
Qianqian Wang ◽  
Jun Li ◽  

Aminoacylase-1 is a zinc-binding enzyme that is important in urea cycling, ammonia scavenging, and oxidative stress responses in animals. Aminoacylase-1 (ACY-1) has been reported to play a role in resistance to pathogen infection in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. However, little is known about its function in plant growth and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we cloned and analyzed expression patterns of ZmACY-1 in Zea mays under different conditions. We also functionally characterized ZmACY-1 in N. benthamiana. We found that ZmACY-1 is expressed specifically in mature shoots compared with other tissues. ZmACY-1 is repressed by salt, drought, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, but is induced by abscisic acid and ethylene, indicating a potential role in stress responses and plant growth. The overexpression of ZmACY-1 in N. benthamiana promoted growth rate by promoting growth-related genes, such as NbEXPA1 and NbEIN2. At the same time, the overexpression of ZmACY-1 in N. benthamiana reduced tolerance to drought and salt stress. With drought and salt stress, the activity of protective enzymes, such as peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) from micrococcus lysodeikticus was lower; while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative electrolytic leakage was higher in ZmACY-1 overexpression lines than that in wild-type lines. The results indicate that ZmACY-1 plays an important role in the balance of plant growth and defense and can be used to assist plant breeding under abiotic stress conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Saima Aslam ◽  
Nadia Gul ◽  
Mudasir A. Mir ◽  
Mohd. Asgher ◽  
Nadiah Al-Sulami ◽  

Plant growth regulators have an important role in various developmental processes during the life cycle of plants. They are involved in abiotic stress responses and tolerance. They have very well-developed capabilities to sense the changes in their external milieu and initiate an appropriate signaling cascade that leads to the activation of plant defense mechanisms. The plant defense system activation causes build-up of plant defense hormones like jasmonic acid (JA) and antioxidant systems like glutathione (GSH). Moreover, calcium (Ca2+) transients are also seen during abiotic stress conditions depicting the role of Ca2+ in alleviating abiotic stress as well. Therefore, these growth regulators tend to control plant growth under varying abiotic stresses by regulating its oxidative defense and detoxification system. This review highlights the role of Jasmonates, Calcium, and glutathione in abiotic stress tolerance and activation of possible novel interlinked signaling cascade between them. Further, phyto-hormone crosstalk with jasmonates, calcium and glutathione under abiotic stress conditions followed by brief insights on omics approaches is also elucidated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 289 ◽  
pp. 110417
Yuting Yang ◽  
Wanyu Xue ◽  
Panpan Chen ◽  
Xin Yuan ◽  
Xvzhen Li ◽  

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