Complex Interplay
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chaofan Li ◽  
Qiaobing Wu ◽  
Debin Gu ◽  
Shiguang Ni

Abstract Background: Healthcare professionals are a population exposed to especially high riskand stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. Several studies have demonstrated that healthcare professionals exposed to COVID-19 reported various affective disorders such as depressive symptoms, anxiety, insomnia, and distress. However, the mechanism underlying the association between trauma exposure and depressive symptom among frontline hospital staff has yet to be investigated. This study aims to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms among frontline healthcare professionals in Shenzhen, China, particularly examining its association with trauma exposure, intrusive rumination and organizational silence.Methods: Data of the study came from a time-lagged panel questionnaire survey with three waves of measurement from February, 2020 to May, 2020 at an infectious diseases hospital of Shenzhen which accommodated all the confirmed cases of COVID-19 patients. Using clustersampling design, a total of 134 frontline healthcare professionals directly involved inproviding diagnosis, treatment and nursing services for COVID-19 patients completed three wave web survey. A moderated mediation model was performed to examine the complex interplay among the major study variables.Results: Trauma exposure was significantly related with depression of frontline healthcare professionals. Intrusive rumination mediated the effect of trauma exposure on depressive symptom, and organization silence moderated the relationship between intrusive rumination and depressive symptoms. Intrusive rumination showed stronger effect on depressive while organization silences was at a lower level.Conclusions: This research demonstrates the pivotal role that intrusive rumination and organizational silence play in predicting the depressive symptoms among the frontline healthcare professionals coping with COVID-19.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. Loes Pouwels ◽  
Loes Keijsers ◽  
Candice Odgers

Potential harmful effects of social media use on well-being have received ample attention in the public and scientific debate. Recent research suggests, however, that some individuals benefit from using social media. This article therefore questions: Who are likely to benefit most from social media, the socially rich (e.g., extraverted or socially supported individuals) or the socially poor (e.g., anxious or lonely individuals)? Existing empirical studies were suboptimally designed to address this question. To better understand the complex interplay between individuals’ social media use and psychosocial functioning, we introduce new research questions that are linked with appropriate state-of-the-art research methods.


2021 ◽  
pp. 095269512110365
Author(s):  
Wendy Sims-Schouten

This article critically analyses correspondence and decisions regarding children/young people who were included in the Canadian child migration schemes that ran between 1883 and 1939, and those who were deemed ‘undeserving’ and outside the scope of the schemes. Drawing on critical realist ontology, a metatheory that centralises the causal non-linear dynamics and generative mechanisms in the individual, the cultural sphere, and wider society, the research starts from the premise that the principle of ‘less or more eligibility’ lies at the heart of the British welfare system, both now and historically. Through analysing case files and correspondence relating to children sent to Canada via the Waifs and Strays Society and Fegan Homes, I shed light on the complex interplay between morality, biological determinism, resistance, and resilience in decisions around which children should be included or excluded. I argue that it was the complex interplay and nuance between the moral/immoral, desirable/undesirable, degenerate, and capable/incapable child that guided practice with vulnerable children in the late 1800s. In judgements around ‘deservedness’, related stigmas around poverty and ‘bad’ behaviour were rife. Within this, the child was punished for his/her ‘immoral tendencies’ and ‘inherited traits’, with little regard for the underlying reasons (e.g. abuse and neglect) for their (abnormal) behaviour and ‘mental deficiencies’.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0253768
Author(s):  
Sergio Fagherazzi ◽  
Luca Baticci ◽  
Christine M. Brandon ◽  
Maria Cristina Rulli

The Labyrinth in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is characterized by large bedrock channels emerging from beneath the margin of Wright Upper Glacier. To study the morphodynamics of large subglacial channels cut into bedrock, we develop herein a numerical model based on the classical theory of subglacial channels and recent results on bedrock abrasion by saltating bed load. Model results show that bedrock abrasion in subglacial channels with pressurized flow reaches a maximum at an intermediate distance up-ice from the glacier snout for a wide range of sediment grain sizes and sediment loads. Close to the snout, the velocity is too low and the sediment particles cannot be mobilized. Far from the snout, the flow accelerates and sediment is transported in suspension, thus limiting particle impacts at the channel bottom and reducing abrasion. This non-monotonic relationship between subglacial flow and bedrock abrasion produces concave up bottom profiles in subglacial channels and potential cross-section constrictions after channel confluences. Both landforms are present in the bedrock channels of the Labyrinth. We therefore conclude that these geomorphic features are a possible signature of bedrock abrasion, rather than glacial scour, and reflect the complex interplay between transport rate, sediment load, and transport capacity in subglacial channels.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yeon-Hee Lee ◽  
Q-Schick Auh

Abstract This study investigated whether sleep deterioration in patients with painful temporomandibular disorder depends on the origin of pain, and also analyzed which clinical disease characteristics and whether psychological distress affected sleep quality. A total of 337 consecutive patients (215 women; mean age, 33.01 ± 13.01 years) with painful temporomandibular disorder (myalgia [n = 120], temporomandibular joint arthralgia [n = 62], mixed joint–muscle temporomandibular disorder pain [n = 155]) based on the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorder were enrolled. They completed a battery of standardized reports on clinical sign and symptoms, and answered questions on sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and patients’ psychological status. The mean global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in the mixed temporomandibular disorder pain group (6.97 ± 3.38) and myalgia group (6.40 ± 3.22) than in the arthralgia group (5.16 ± 2.94) (p = 0.001). Poor sleepers were significantly more prevalent in the mixed temporomandibular disorder pain group (76.8%) and myalgia group (71.7%) than in the arthralgia group (54.8%) (p = 0.006). The presence of psychological distress in the myalgia group (β = 1.236, p = 0.022), global severity index of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised in the arthralgia group (β = 1.668, p = 0.008), and presence of headache (β = 1.631, p = 0.002) and self-reported sleep problems (β = 2.849, p < 0.001) in the mixed temporomandibular disorder pain group were associated with an increase in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score. Because there is a difference in sleep quality and influencing factors according to the pain source of painful temporomandibular disorder, and the complex interplay between sleep and pain can vary, sophisticated treatment is required for patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michelle D. Cherne ◽  
Barkan Sidar ◽  
T. Andrew Sebrell ◽  
Humberto S. Sanchez ◽  
Kody Heaton ◽  
...  

Immunosurveillance of the gastrointestinal epithelium by mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) is essential for maintaining gut health. However, studying the complex interplay between the human gastrointestinal epithelium and MNPs such as dendritic cells (DCs) is difficult, since traditional cell culture systems lack complexity, and animal models may not adequately represent human tissues. Microphysiological systems, or tissue chips, are an attractive alternative for these investigations, because they model functional features of specific tissues or organs using microscale culture platforms that recreate physiological tissue microenvironments. However, successful integration of multiple of tissue types on a tissue chip platform to reproduce physiological cell-cell interactions remains a challenge. We previously developed a tissue chip system, the gut organoid flow chip (GOFlowChip), for long term culture of 3-D pluripotent stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids. Here, we optimized the GOFlowChip platform to build a complex microphysiological immune-cell-epithelial cell co-culture model in order to study DC-epithelial interactions in human stomach. We first tested different tubing materials and chip configurations to optimize DC loading onto the GOFlowChip and demonstrated that DC culture on the GOFlowChip for up to 20 h did not impact DC activation status or viability. However, Transwell chemotaxis assays and live confocal imaging revealed that Matrigel, the extracellular matrix (ECM) material commonly used for organoid culture, prevented DC migration towards the organoids and the establishment of direct MNP-epithelial contacts. Therefore, we next evaluated DC chemotaxis through alternative ECM materials including Matrigel-collagen mixtures and synthetic hydrogels. A polysaccharide-based synthetic hydrogel, VitroGel®-ORGANOID-3 (V-ORG-3), enabled significantly increased DC chemotaxis through the matrix, supported organoid survival and growth, and did not significantly alter DC activation or viability. On the GOFlowChip, DCs that were flowed into the chip migrated rapidly through the V-ORG matrix and reached organoids embedded deep within the chip, with increased interactions between DCs and gastric organoids. The successful integration of DCs and V-ORG-3 embedded gastric organoids into the GOFlowChip platform now permits real-time imaging of MNP-epithelial interactions and other investigations of the complex interplay between gastrointestinal MNPs and epithelial cells in their response to pathogens, candidate drugs and mucosal vaccines.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2604
Author(s):  
Paolo Emidio Crisi ◽  
Alessia Luciani ◽  
Morena Di Tommaso ◽  
Paraskevi Prasinou ◽  
Francesca De Santis ◽  
...  

Canine chronic enteropathies (CEs) are inflammatory processes resulting from complex interplay between the mucosal immune system, intestinal microbiome, and dietary components in susceptible dogs. Fatty acids (FAs) play important roles in the regulation of physiologic and metabolic pathways and their role in inflammation seems to be dual, as they exhibit pro–inflammatory and anti–inflammatory functions. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) membrane fatty acid profile represents a tool for assessing the quantity and quality of structural and functional molecular components. This study was aimed at comparing the FA membrane profile, determined by Gas Chromatography and relevant lipid parameter of 48 CE dogs compared with 68 healthy dogs. In CE patients, the levels of stearic (p < 0.0001), dihomo–gamma–linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (p = 0.02), and docosahexaenoic (p = 0.02) acids were significantly higher, and those of palmitic (p < 0.0001) and linoleic (p = 0.0006) acids were significantly lower. Non-responder dogs presented higher percentages of vaccenic acid (p = 0.007), compared to those of dogs that responded to diagnostic trials. These results suggest that lipidomic status may reflect the “gut health”, and the non–invasive analysis of RBC membrane might have the potential to become a candidate biomarker in the evaluation of dogs affected by CE.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maria Ortiz Estevez ◽  
Mehmet Samur ◽  
Fadi Towfic ◽  
Erin Flynt ◽  
Nicholas Stong ◽  
...  

Despite significant therapeutic advances in improving lives of Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients, it remains mostly incurable, with patients ultimately becoming refractory to therapies. MM is a genetically heterogeneous disease and therapeutic resistance is driven by a complex interplay of disease pathobiology and mechanisms of drug resistance. We applied a multi-omics strategy using tumor-derived gene expression, single nucleotide variant, copy number variant, and structural variant profiles to investigate molecular subgroups in 514 newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) samples and identified 12 molecularly defined MM subgroups (MDMS1-12) with distinct genomic and transcriptomic features. Our integrative approach let us identify ndMM subgroups with transversal profiles to previously described ones, based on single data types, which shows the impact of this approach for disease stratification. One key novel subgroup is our MDMS8, associated with poor clinical outcome [median overall survival, 38 months (global log-rank pval<1x10-6)], which uniquely presents a broad genomic loss (>9% of entire genome, t.test pval<1e-5) driving dysregulation of various transcriptional programs affecting DNA repair and cell cycle/mitotic processes. This subgroup was validated on multiple independent datasets, and a master regulator analyses identified transcription factors controlling MDMS8 transcriptomic profile, including CKS1B and PRKDC among others, which are regulators of the DNA repair and cell cycle pathways.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 369-388
Author(s):  
John L. Hoben

How can a poem be true? This autoethnographic study uses poetic inquiry to explore the boundaries between fiction and reality within poetic experience. A series of poems composed during, and about, the current COVID-19 pandemic, provides a means of understanding the experience of having one’s everyday reality overturned by crisis. A central theme of the author’s poems and accompanying reflections is how art can be used to explore psychological experiences, such as melancholia and depression, and, in turn how the experience of suffering can be used to facilitate artistic expression. Using poetic inquiry, the author examines the complex interplay between speaker and authorial intention, fiction and truth, text and the performance of writing, reading, and poetic interpretation.


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