To investigate the proportion of children in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) who do or do not meet sleep duration and sleep quality guidelines at 24 and 45 months of age and associated sociodemographic factors.
Participants were children (n=6,490) from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study of child development with sleep data available at 24 and/or 45 months of age (48.2% girls, 51.8% boys; 22.4% Māori [the Indigenous people of NZ], 12.9% Pacific, 13.4% Asian, 45.2% European/Other). Relationships between sociodemographic factors and maternally-reported child sleep duration (across 24 hours) and night wakings were investigated cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Estimates of children in NZ meeting sleep guidelines were calculated using a range of analytical techniques including Bayesian linear regression, negative binomial multiple regression, and growth curve models.
In NZ, 29.8% and 19.5% of children were estimated to have a high probability of not meeting sleep duration guidelines and 15.4% and 8.3% were estimated to have a high probability of not meeting night waking guidelines at 24 and 45 months respectively, after controlling for multiple sociodemographic variables. Factors associated cross-sectionally with children’s sleep included ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, material standard of living, rurality and heavy traffic, and longitudinal sleep trajectories differed by gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation.
A considerable proportion of young children in NZ have a high probability of not meeting sleep guidelines but this declines across the ages of 24 and 45 months. Sleep health inequities exist as early as 24 months of age in NZ.
In July 2021, Typhoon In-Fa attacked eastern China and broke many records for extreme precipitation over the last century. Such an unrivaled impact results from In-Fa’s slow moving speed and long residence time due to atmospheric circulations. With the supports of 66 networked surface disdrometers over eastern China and collaborative observations from the advanced GPM satellite, we are able to reveal the unique precipitation microphysical properties of the record-breaking Typhoon In-Fa (2021). After separating the typhoon precipitation into convective and stratiform types and comparing the drop size distribution (DSD) properties of Typhoon In-Fa with other typhoons from different climate regimes, it is found that typhoon precipitation shows significant internal differences as well as regional differences in terms of DSD-related parameters, such as mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm), normalized intercept parameter (Nw), radar reflectivity (Z), rain rate (R), and intercept, shape, and slope parameters (N0, µ, Λ). Comparing different rain types inside Typhoon In-Fa, convective rain (Nw ranging from 3.80 to 3.96 mm−1 m−3) shows higher raindrop concentration than stratiform rain (Nw ranging from 3.40 to 3.50 mm−1 m−3) due to more graupels melting into liquid water while falling. Large raindrops occupy most of the region below the melting layer in convective rain due to a dominant coalescence process of small raindrops (featured by larger ZKu, Dm, and smaller N0, µ, Λ), while small raindrops account for a considerable proportion in stratiform rain, reflecting a significant collisional breakup process of large raindrops (featured by smaller ZKu, Dm, and larger N0, µ, Λ). Compared with other typhoons in Hainan and Taiwan, the convective precipitation of Typhoon In-Fa shows a larger (smaller) raindrop concentration than that of Taiwan (Hainan), while smaller raindrop diameter than both Hainan and Taiwan. Moreover, the typhoon convective precipitation measured in In-Fa is more maritime-like than precipitation in Taiwan. Based on a great number of surface disdrometer observational data, the GPM precipitation products were further validated for both rain types, and a series of native quantitative precipitation estimation relations, such as Z–R and R–Dm relations were derived to improve the typhoon rainfall retrieval for both ground-based radar and spaceborne radar.
The major grain-producing areas will be the key areas of future China fallow. It is important to explore the influence of farmers’ value perceptions on their fallow willingness in these areas. We analyzed this impact of value perception by using an ordered PROBIT model and survey data from the major grain-producing areas of Hubei and Hunan, China. The conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) A considerable proportion of farmers are willing to participate in farmland fallow, while a considerable proportion of farmers are neutral; (2) farmers’ value perceptions of farmland fallow have a significant positive impact on their fallow willingness; (3) farmers’ ages and education levels have a positive impact on farmers’ willingness to directly participate in farmland fallow, while per capita farmland area has a negative impact; (4) the key factors for successful fallow are solving the problem of non-agricultural employment of farmers and appropriately formulating fallow mode, scale, and subsidy standards. This study proposes that the government can develop farmers’ good value perceptions of fallow through appropriate subsidies and adequate publicity to strengthen their fallow consciousness.
To ascertain the psychological impacts of COVID-19 among the Pakistani healthcare workers (HCWs) and their coping strategies.
This web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs (N=398) from Punjab province of Pakistan. The generalized anxiety scale (GAD-7), patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Brief-COPE were used to assess anxiety, depression and coping strategies, respectively.
The average age of respondents was 28.67 years (SD=4.15), with the majority of medical doctors (52%). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 21.4% and 21.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in anxiety and depression scores among doctors, nurses and pharmacists. Females had significantly higher anxiety (p=0.003) and depression (p=0.001) scores than males. Moreover, frontline HCWs had significantly higher depression scores (p=0.010) than others. The depression, not anxiety, score were significantly higher among those who did not receive the infection prevention training (p=0.004). Most frequently adopted coping strategy were religious coping (M=5.98, SD=1.73), acceptance (M=5.59, SD=1.55) and coping planning (M=4.91, SD=1.85).
A considerable proportion of HCWs are having generalized anxiety and depression during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings call for interventions to mitigate mental health risks in HCWs.
Background: Long COVID or long-term complication after COVID-19 has the ability to affect health and quality of life. Knowledge about the burden and predictors could aid in their prevention and management. Most of the studies are from high-income countries and focus on severe cases. We did this study to estimate the prevalence and identify the characteristics and predictors of Long COVID among our patients.
Methodology: We recruited adult (≥18 years) patients who were diagnosed as Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection and were either hospitalized or tested on outpatient basis. Eligible participants were followed up telephonically after four weeks of diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infection to collect data on sociodemographic, clinical history, vaccination history, Cycle threshold (Ct) values during diagnosis and other variables. Characteristic of Long COVID were elicited, and multivariable logistic regression was done to find the predictors of Long COVID.
Results: We have analyzed 487 individual data with a median follow-up of 44 days (Inter quartile range (IQR): 39,47). Overall, Long COVID was reported by 29.2% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 25.3%,33.4%) participants. Prevalence of Long COVID among patients with mild/moderate disease (n = 415) was 23.4% (95% CI: 19.5%,27.7%) as compared to 62.5% (95% CI: 50.7%,73%) in severe/critical cases(n=72). The most common Long COVID symptom was fatigue (64.8%) followed by cough (32.4%). Statistically significant predictors of Long COVID were - Pre-existing medical conditions (Adjusted Odds ratio (aOR)=2.00, 95% CI: 1.16,3.44), having a more significant number of symptoms during acute phase of COVID-19 disease (aOR=11.24, 95% CI: 4.00,31.51), two doses of COVID-19 vaccination (aOR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.17,4.58), the severity of illness (aOR=5.71, 95% CI: 3.00,10.89) and being admitted to hospital (Odds ratio (OR)=3.89, 95% CI: 2.49,6.08).
Conclusion: A considerable proportion of COVID-19 cases reported Long COVID symptoms. More research is needed in Long COVID to objectively assess the symptoms and find the biological and radiological markers.
Chronic kidney disease is increasingly more prevalent worldwide, and kidney transplant remains the best option for patient survival. Living kidney transplants (LKT) pose advantages over deceased donor transplants, such as longer graft survival, lower ischemia time, and better HLA match. However, LKT is not always attainable for multiples reasons, with the absence of a suitable living donor being a significant barrier. Therefore, meticulous donor screening must be performed in order to guarantee donation safety. We examined medical appointments of living kidney donors evaluated at Hospital do Rim, São Paulo, between January and December 2020. Reasons for not proceeding with the donation were evaluated and were categorized as medical, surgical, immunological, psychosocial, or other. A total of 506 donor -receptor pairs were enrolled for evaluation during the study period. More than half of screened donor -receptor pairs (N=296, 58.5%) were not considered feasible for LKT. The primary cause for refusal was medical contraindication (32.1%), followed by immune (21.3%) and social (19.3%) causes. In addition, a considerable proportion of patients voluntarily withdrew themselves at variable time points during the evaluation process (N=79). In our center, most patients did not meet the criteria for kidney donation owing to medical reasons, similarly to other centers, and this reflects the importance of meticulous donor screening. In addition, the current Covid -19 pandemic affected the living transplant program, contributing to delayed complete donor and receptor evaluation.
Individuals in higher socioeconomic positions tend to utilise more mental health care, especially specialist services, than those in lower positions. Whether these disparities in treatment exist among adolescents and young adults who self-harm is currently unknown.
The study is based on Finnish administrative register data on all individuals born 1986–1994. Adolescents and young adults with an episode of self-harm treated in specialised healthcare at ages 16–21 in 2002–2015 (n=4280, 64% female) were identified and followed 2 years before and after the episode. Probabilities of specialised psychiatric inpatient admissions and outpatient visits and purchases of psychotropic medication at different time points relative to self-harm were estimated using generalised estimation equations, multinomial models and cumulative averages. Socioeconomic differences were assessed based on parental education, controlling for income.
An educational gradient in specialised treatment and prescription medication was observed, with the highest probabilities of treatment among the adolescents and young adults with the highest educated parents and lowest probabilities among those whose parents had basic education. These differences emerged mostly after self-harm. The probability to not receive any treatment, either in specialised healthcare or psychotropic medication, was highest among youth whose parents had a basic level of education (before self-harm 0.39, 95% CI 0.34–0.43, and after 0.29, 95% CI 0.25–0.33 after) and lowest among youth with higher tertiary educated parents (before self-harm: 0.22, 95% CI 0.18–0.26, and after 0.18, 95% CI 0.14–0.22). The largest differences were observed in inpatient care.
The results suggest that specialised psychiatric care and psychotropic medication use are common among youth who self-harm, but a considerable proportion have no prior or subsequent specialised treatment. The children of parents with lower levels of education are likely to benefit from additional support in initiating and adhering to treatment after an episode of self-harm. Further research on the mechanisms underlying the educational gradient in psychiatric treatment is needed.
The belief that genetics plays a major role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects (CHD) has grown popular among clinicians. Although some studies have focused on the genetic testing of foetuses with CHD in China, the genotype–phenotype relationship has not yet been fully established, and hotspot copy number variations (CNVs) related to CHD in the Chinese population are still unclear. This cohort study aimed to assess the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in Chinese foetuses with different types of CHD.
In a cohort of 200 foetuses, chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 49 (24.5%) after a prenatal chromosome microarray analysis (CMA), including 23 foetuses (11.5%) with aneuploidies and 26 (13.0%) with clinically significant CNVs. The additional diagnostic yield following whole exome sequencing (WES) was 11.5% (6/52). The incidence of total chromosomal abnormality in the non-isolated CHD group (31.8%) was higher than that in the isolated CHD group (20.9%), mainly because the incidence of aneuploidy was significantly increased when CHD was combined with extracardiac structural abnormalities or soft markers. The chromosomal abnormality rate of the complex CHD group was higher than that of the simple CHD group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (31.8% vs. 23.6%, P = 0.398). The most common CNV detected in CHD foetuses was the 22q11.2 deletion, followed by deletions of 5p15.33p15.31, deletions of 15q13.2q13.3, deletions of 11q24.2q25, deletions of 17p13.3p13.2, and duplications of 17q12.
CMA is the recommended initial examination for cases of CHD in prenatal settings, for both simple heart defects and isolated heart defects. For cases with negative CMA results, the follow-up application of WES will offer a considerable proportion of additional detection of clinical significance.
AbstractLifestyle and physiological variables on human disease risk have been revealed to be mediated by gut microbiota. Low concordance between case-control studies for detecting disease-associated microbe existed due to limited sample size and population-wide bias in lifestyle and physiological variables. To infer gut microbiota-disease associations accurately, we propose to build machine learning models by including both human variables and gut microbiota. When the model’s performance with both gut microbiota and human variables is better than the model with just human variables, the independent gut microbiota -disease associations will be confirmed. By building models on the American Gut Project dataset, we found that gut microbiota showed distinct association strengths with different diseases. Adding gut microbiota into human variables enhanced the classification performance of IBD significantly; independent associations between occurrence information of gut microbiota and irritable bowel syndrome, C. difficile infection, and unhealthy status were found; adding gut microbiota showed no improvement on models’ performance for diabetes, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lactose intolerance, cardiovascular disease. Our results suggested that although gut microbiota was reported to be associated with many diseases, a considerable proportion of these associations may be very weak. We proposed a list of microbes as biomarkers to classify IBD and unhealthy status. Further functional investigations of these microbes will improve understanding of the molecular mechanism of human diseases.
The aim of the study was to assess the acceptance level of COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers (HCW) and the general population in Poland at the start of the national COVID-19 vaccination program from 18–31 December 2020. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was conducted in a group of 1976 people: 1042 health professionals and 934 non-medical professionals using an on-line questionnaire. The most skeptical about the COVID-19 vaccine were students of non-medical faculties, non-medical professions, and administrative–technical health service staff (26.2%, 38.7% and 41.2%, respectively). The most positive attitude to vaccination was reported by doctors, medical students and pharmacists (80.6%, 76.9% and 65.7%, respectively). Doctors (64.7%) and medical students (63.7%) most often declared confidence in vaccines compared to nurses (34.5%). Distrust about vaccine safety was declared by nurses (46.6%) and pharmacists (40.0%). HCW encouraged others to vaccinate more eagerly (65.8%) than non-medical professions (28.3%). Thus, a considerable proportion of HCW in Poland expressed concern about vaccines just prior to the beginning of the COVID-19 immunization program. The significant decrease in the willingness to vaccinate observed in Poland towards the end of 2021 must be considered in the light of the serious COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in the Polish population.