antenna systems
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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Suyue Li ◽  
Fanyi Meng ◽  
Jian Xiong ◽  
Lina Bariah ◽  
Sami Muhaidat ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11471
Chia-Yi Wu ◽  
Haolin Li ◽  
Joris Van Kerrebrouck ◽  
Caro Meysmans ◽  
Piet Demeester ◽  

Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) has attracted wide attention as wireless spectral efficiency has become a 6G key performance indicator. The distributed scheme improves the spectral efficiency and user fairness, but the fronthaul network must evolve to enable it. This work demonstrates a fronthaul network for distributed antenna systems enabled by the bit-interleaved sigma-delta-over-fiber (BISDoF) concept: multiple sigma-delta modulated baseband signals are time-interleaved into one non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signal, which is converted to the optical domain by a commercial QSFP and transmitted over fiber. The BISDoF concept improves the optical bit-rate efficiency while keeping the remote unit complexity sufficiently low. The implementation successfully deals with an essential challenge—precise frequency synchronization of different remote units. Moreover, owing to the straightforward data paths, all transceivers inherently transmit or receive with fixed timing offsets which can be easily calibrated. The error vector magnitudes of both the downlink and uplink data paths are less than 2.8% (–31 dB) when transmitting 40.96 MHz-bandwidth OFDM signals (256-QAM) centered around 3.6 GHz. (Optical path: 100 m multi-mode fibers; wireless path: electrical back-to-back.) Without providing an extra reference clock, the two remote units were observed to have the same carrier frequency; the standard deviation of the relative jitter was 9.43 ps.

Y. A. Litinskaya ◽  
S. V. Polenga ◽  
Y. P. Salomatov

Introduction. Introduction. Low-profile effective antenna systems (AS) with maintained directional characteristics in a wide sector of scanning angles are required for satellite communication at mobile objects. This article investigates the directional characteristics of a subarray based on a Fabry–Perot cavity and an antenna array with mechanoelectrical beam steering.Aim. To investigate a Fabry–Perot based antenna array with mechanoelectrical beam steering and to estimate its gain and directivity at different scanning angles.Materials and methods. Computer simulations were carried out using the finite element method (FEM), finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and template based post-processing.Results. A subarray based on a Fabry–Perot cavity for an antenna array with mechanoelectrical beam steering was simulated. The efficiency of the subarray comprised at least 65 % in the 11.9…12.5 GHz frequency band. An antenna array based on a Fabry–Perot cavity with mechanoelectrical beam steering was developed and investigated. The calculated characteristics of the developed antenna array agreed well with those obtained experimentally. The gain degradation did not exceed 2.5 dB in the 0…70° scanning angle range. The advantages of using antenna elements based on a Fabry–Perot cavity and developing on their basis mobile satellite antenna systems with wide-angle scanning are noted.Conclusion. The use of a radiator based on a Fabry–Perot cavity and the development on it basis an antenna array with mechanoelectrical beam steering provides an antenna efficiency of no less than 0.5 with a gain degradation of no more than 2.5 dB in the scanning angle range 0…70° from 11.9 to 12.5 GHz.

2021 ◽  
Said Mikki

We develop foundations for the emerging field of quantum antennas using relativistic quantum field theory. We show that the concept of "antenna" goes beyond electromagnetic waves. Any quantum radiation can be treated within quantum antenna theory, not only electromagnetic or acoustic radiation that dominated the field so far.

2021 ◽  
Said Mikki

We develop foundations for the emerging field of quantum antennas using relativistic quantum field theory. We show that the concept of "antenna" goes beyond electromagnetic waves. Any quantum radiation can be treated within quantum antenna theory, not only electromagnetic or acoustic radiation that dominated the field so far.

С.М. Фёдоров ◽  
Е.А. Ищенко ◽  
И.А. Баранников ◽  
К.А. Бердников ◽  
В.В. Кузнецова

Рассматривается полуволновый диполь с установленным рефлектором, который позволяет производить сканирование пространства с использованием вращения рефлектора вокруг диполя. Для полученной конструкции производилось моделирование основных параметров, которые показали высокую стабильность при различных положениях рефлектора, постоянное значение коэффициента направленного действия, ширины главного лепестка. Изменение направления излучения совпадает с текущим положением рефлектора. По сравнению с ситуацией, когда у антенны отсутствовал рефлектор, КНД антенны увеличился, так как произошла фокусировка электромагнитных волн. Коэффициент полезного действия и передне-заднее отношение сохраняют высокие значения во всем диапазоне рабочих частот. Применение предложенной конструкции позволяет упростить конструкцию сканирующих антенн, так как для ее реализации требуются лишь полуволновой диполь и плоский рефлектор, установленный на малом расстоянии от источника излучения. В процессе управления характеристиками требуется вращать рефлектор вокруг диполя, при этом диполь остается неподвижным, что позволяет повысить эффективность предложенной конструкции, так как не требуется формировать сложных антенных систем или устанавливать комбинацию из нескольких антенн для фокусировки излучения в одном направлении от источника The article discusses a half-wave dipole with an installed reflector, which allows scanning space using the rotation of the reflector around the dipole. For the resulting structure, we simulated the main parameters, which showed high stability at various positions of the reflector, a constant value of the directivity factor, and the width of the main lobe. The change in the direction of radiation coincides with the current position of the reflector. Compared to the situation when the antenna did not have a reflector, the directivity of the antenna increased since the focusing of electromagnetic waves took place. The efficiency and the front-to-back ratio remain high throughout the entire operating frequency range. The use of the proposed design makes it possible to simplify the design of scanning antennas since the implementation of the proposed design requires only a half-wave dipole and a flat reflector installed at a short distance from the radiation source. In the process of controlling the characteristics, it is required to rotate the reflector around the dipole, while the dipole remains stationary, which makes it possible to increase the efficiency of the proposed design, since it is not required to form complex antenna systems or install a combination of several antennas to focus radiation in one direction from the source

2021 ◽  
Vol 2108 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Tong Zhu ◽  
Guotian Ji ◽  
Guokai Jiang ◽  
Yifu Ding ◽  
Jiaxu Feng ◽  

Abstract With the development of Connected Vehicle, various of on-board applications and functions rely on stable, reliable and fast-response wireless connections furtherly, making it more urgent and widespread for vehicles to be equipped with relevant antenna systems such as positioning and communication. There are many types of vehicle antenna systems, together with a wide range of installation locations and a complex electronic environment which brings a huge challenges to the development of antenna manufacturers and the matching of automobile OEMs. In order to carry out the R&D, matching and testing of the vehicle antenna system better, various parties have proposed a multi-dimensional test and evaluation methods, but there is still a lack of horizontal evaluation between them. This paper analyses the requirements of automotive antenna system evaluation, sorts out and compares the technical paths of various common solutions, summarizes the characteristics and differences of various solutions, and provides a research foundation for further optimizing the vehicle-level antenna system test and evaluation program.

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