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Sarmad K. Ibrahim ◽  
Saif A. Abdulhussien

<span>The downlink multi-user precoding of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) method includes optimal channel state information at the base station and a variety of linear precoding (LP) schemes. Maximum ratio transmission (MRT) is among the common precoding schemes but does not provide good performance with massive MIMO, such as high bit error rate (BER) and low throughput. The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and precoding schemes used in 5G have a flaw in high-speed environments. Given that the Doppler effect induces frequency changes, orthogonality between OFDM subcarriers is disrupted and their throughput output is decreased and BER is decreased. This study focuses on solving this problem by improving the performance of a 5G system with MRT, specifically by using a new design that includes weighted overlap and add (WOLA) with MRT. The current research also compares the standard system MRT with OFDM with the proposed design (WOLA-MRT) to find the best performance on throughput and BER. Improved system results show outstanding performance enhancement over a standard system, and numerous improvements with massive MIMO, such as best BER and throughput. Its approximately 60% more throughput than the traditional systems. Lastly, the proposed system improves BER by approximately 2% compared with the traditional system.</span>

Hong Son Vu ◽  
Kien Truong ◽  
Minh Thuy Le

<p>Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are considered a promising solution to minimize multiuser interference (MUI) based on simple precoding techniques with a massive antenna array at a base station (BS). This paper presents a novel approach of beam division multiple access (BDMA) which BS transmit signals to multiusers at the same time via different beams based on hybrid beamforming and user-beam schedule. With the selection of users whose steering vectors are orthogonal to each other, interference between users is significantly improved. While, the efficiency spectrum of proposed scheme reaches to the performance of fully digital solutions, the multiuser interference is considerably reduced.</p>

Sonti Swapna

Abstract: A combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technologies can be employed in modern wireless communication systems to achieve high data rates and improved spectrum efficiency. For multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, this paper provides a Rayleigh fading channel estimation technique based on pilot carriers. The channel is estimated using traditional Least Square (LS) and Minimum Mean Square (MMSE) estimation techniques. The MIMO-OFDM system's performance is measured using the Bit Error Rate (BER) and Mean Square Error (MSE) levels. Keywords: MIMO, MMSE, Channel estimation, BER, OFDM

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 251
Arpan Desai ◽  
Merih Palandoken ◽  
Issa Elfergani ◽  
Ismail Akdag ◽  
Chemseddine Zebiri ◽  

A dual-port transparent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna resonating at sub-6 GHz 5G band is proposed by using patch/ground material as transparent conductive oxide (AgHT-8) and a transparent Plexiglas substrate. Two identical circular-shaped radiating elements fed by using a microstrip feedline are designed using the finite element method (FEM) based high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) software. The effect of the isolation mechanism is discussed using two cases. In case 1, the two horizontally positioned elements are oriented in a similar direction with a separate ground plane, whereas in case 2, the elements are vertically placed facing opposite to each other with an allied ground. In both cases, the transparent antennas span over a −10 dB band of 4.65 to 4.97 GHz (300 MHz) with isolation greater than 15 dB among two elements. The diversity parameters are also analyzed for both the cases covering the correlation coefficient (ECC), mean effective gain (MEG), diversity gain (DG), and channel capacity loss (CCL). The average gain and efficiency above 1 dBi and 45%, respectively with satisfactory MIMO diversity performance, makes the transparent MIMO antenna an appropriate choice for smart IoT devices working in the sub-6 GHz 5G band by mitigating the co-site location and visual clutter issues.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-32
Dongmei Wei ◽  
Yuan Rong ◽  
Harish Garg

Teaching quality evaluation (TQE) can not only improve teachers’ teaching skills, but also provide an important reference for school teaching management departments to formulate teaching reform measures and strengthen teaching management. TQE is a process of grading and ranking a given teachers based on the comprehensive consideration of multiple evaluation criteria by expert. The Maclaurin symmetric mean (MSM), as a powerful aggregation function, can capture the correlation among multiple input data more efficient. Although multitude weighted MSM operators have been developed to handle the Pythagorean fuzzy decision issues, these above operators do not possess the idempotency and reducibility during the procedure of information fusion. To conquer these defects, we present the Pythagorean fuzzy reducible weighted MSM (PFRWMSM) operator and Pythagorean fuzzy reducible weighted geometric MSM (PFRWGMSM) operator to fuse Pythagorean fuzzy assessment information. Meanwhile, several worthwhile properties and especial cases of the developed operators are explored at length. Afterwards, we develop a novel Pythagorean fuzzy entropy based upon knowledge measure to ascertain the weights of attribute. Furthermore, an extended weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) method is developed by combining the PFRWMSM operator, PFRWGMSM operator and entropy to settle the decision problems of unknown weight information. The efficiency of the proffered method is demonstrated by a teaching quality evaluation issue, as well as the discussion of sensitivity analysis for decision outcomes. Consequently, a comparative study of the presented method with the extant Pythagorean fuzzy approaches is conducted to display the superiority of the propounded approach.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 519
Gianmarco Romano

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) communication systems and the use of millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) bands represent key technologies that are expected to meet the growing demand of data traffic and the explosion of the number of devices that need to communicate over 5G/6G wireless networks [...]

Peter Anuoluwapo Gbadega ◽  
Olufunke Abolaji Balogun

There is a continuous global need for more energy, which must be cleaner than energy produced from the conventional generation technologies. As such, this need has necessitated the increasing penetration of distributed generation technologies and primarily on renewable energy sources. This paper presents a dynamic modeling and control strategy for a sustainable micro-grid, principally powered by multiple renewable energy sources (solar energy, wind energy and Fuel cell), micro sources (such as diesel generator, micro-gas turbine etc.) and energy storage scheme. More importantly, a current-source-interface, multiple-input dc-dc converter is utilized to coordinate the sustainable power sources to the main dc bus. Thus, for tracking maximum power available in solar energy, maximum power point tracking algorithm is applied. The proposed system is designed to meet load demand, manage power flow from various sources, inject excess power into the grid, and charge the battery from the grid as needed. More so, the proposed converter architecture has reduced number of power conversion stages with less component count, and reduced losses compared to existing grid-connected hybrid systems. This improves the efficiency and reliability of the system. The utilization of energy storage is essential owing to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources and the consequent peak power shift between the sources and the load. Following this further, a supervisory control system is designed to handle various changes in power supply and power demand by managing power intermittency, power peak shaving, and long-term energy storage. The entire hybrid system is described given along with comprehensive simulation results that reveal the feasibility of the whole scheme. The system model is designed and simulated in MATLAB SimPowerSystem in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Francis Kuk ◽  
Christopher Slugocki ◽  
Neal Davis-Ruperto ◽  
Petri Korhonen

Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Danijela Miloradović ◽  
Jovanka Lukić ◽  
Jasna Glišović ◽  
Nenad Miloradović

Steering and suspension systems of a motor vehicle have very important mutual connections that have direct influence on a vehicle’s steerability, stability, comfort and life expectancy. These mechanical and functional couplings cause an intensive interaction between the two mentioned vehicle systems on a geometrical, kinematical and dynamical level. This article presents a study on nonparametric identification of dynamic interaction between the steering and the suspension system of a passenger vehicle. A specific methodology for experimental research in on-road conditions was designed that was in line with the research objectives and the applied measuring system. Experimental data were acquired for a curvilinear drive, with different constant driving speeds and on different roads. A multiple input/multiple output model for identification of the vehicle dynamics system from the aspect of interaction between the steering and the suspension system was developed. The analysis of experimental data was realized with the selection of a corresponding identification model, decoupling of model inputs and conditioned spectral analysis. The results of the conditioned spectral analysis of experimentally obtained data records indicate the level of interaction between the observed input and output parameters of the steering and the suspension systems to be in the frequency range below 30 Hz.

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