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Sugondo Hadiyoso ◽  
Inung Wijayanto ◽  
Suci Aulia

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was a condition beginning before more serious deterioration, leading to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). MCI detection was needed to determine the patient's therapeutic management. Analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence is one of the modalities for MCI detection. Therefore, this study investigated the inter and intra-hemispheric coherence over 16 EEG channels in the frequency range of 1-30 Hz. The simulation results showed that most of the electrode pair coherence in MCI patients have decreased compared to normal elderly subjects. In inter hemisphere coherence, significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the FP1-FP2 electrode pairs. Meanwhile, significant differences (p<0.05) were found in almost all pre-frontal area connectivity of the intra-hemisphere coherence pairs. The electrode pairs were FP2-F4, FP2-T4, FP1-F3, FP1-F7, FP1-C3, FP1-T3, FP1-P3, FP1-T5, FP1-O1, F3-O1, and T3-T5. The decreased coherence in MCI patients showed the disconnection of cortical connections as a result of the death of the neurons. Furthermore, the coherence value can be used as a multimodal feature in normal elderly subjects and MCI. It is hoped that current studies may be considered for early detection of Alzheimer’s in a larger population.

Fatima Faydhe Al-Azzwi ◽  
Ruaa Ali Khamees ◽  
Zina Abdul Lateef ◽  
Batool Faydhe Al-Azzawi

<p>The next generation for mobile communication is new radio (NR) that supporting air interface which referred to the fifth generation or 5G. Long term evolution (LTE), universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) are 5G NR predecessors, also referred to as fourth generation (4G), third generation (3G) and second generation (2G) technologies. Pseudo-noise (PN) code length and modulation technique used in the 5G technology affect the output spectrum and the payload of DL-FRC specification, in this paper quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16 QAM modulation approaches tested under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) in term of bit error rate (BER) which used with 5G technology system implemented with MATLAB-Simulink and programing and, resulting of 1672, 12296 bit/slot payload at frequency range FR1 from 450 MHz-6 GHz and 4424, 20496 bit/slot payload at frequency range FR2 from 24.25 GHz-52.6 GHz, also determining subcarrier spacing, allocated source block, duplex mode, payload bit/slot, RBW (KHz), sampling rate (MHz), the gain and the bandwidth of main, side loop where illustrated.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 149 ◽  
pp. 106788
Susana Burnes ◽  
Jesús Villa ◽  
Gamaliel Moreno ◽  
Ismael de la Rosa ◽  
Daniel Alaniz ◽  

Aslina Abu Bakar ◽  
Muhammad Aiman Najmi bin Rodzali ◽  
Rosfariza Radzali ◽  
Azlina Idris ◽  
Ahmad Rashidy Razali

<p>In this research the dielectric constant of three types of Malaysian honey has been investigated using a non-destructive measurement technique. The objective of this research is to assess the dielectric constant of the three types of honey in Malaysia using a non-destructive measurement technique known as an open-ended coaxial probe in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 10 GHz frequency. Analysis on the effect water concentration in honey on the dielectric constant and the effect of temperature on dielectric constant of honey has been conducted. The three types of honey that have been chosen to be investigated in this project are stingless bee honey, wild honey and commercial (organic) honey and together their water adulterated samples. For this research, the probe had been set up by setting a range of frequency from 100 MHz to 10 GHz and needs to be calibrated with three calibration methods namely open, short and reference water. From the result it was found that the higher the temperature of the honey and the higher percentage of water content in the honey, the dielectric constant is increased. The dielectric constants of all honeys decreased with increasing frequency in the measured frequency range and increased with increase percentage of water content and temperature.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jing Ren ◽  
Qun Yao ◽  
Minjie Tian ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Yueqiu Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Migraine is a common and disabling primary headache, which is associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. However, the mechanisms of emotion processing in migraine are not fully understood yet. The present study aimed to investigate the neural network during neutral, positive, and negative emotional stimuli in the migraine patients. Methods A total of 24 migraine patients and 24 age- and sex-matching healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Neuromagnetic brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system upon exposure to human facial expression stimuli. MEG data were analyzed in multi-frequency ranges from 1 to 100 Hz. Results The migraine patients exhibited a significant enhancement in the effective connectivity from the prefrontal lobe to the temporal cortex during the negative emotional stimuli in the gamma frequency (30–90 Hz). Graph theory analysis revealed that the migraine patients had an increased degree and clustering coefficient of connectivity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz) upon exposure to positive emotional stimuli and an increased degree of connectivity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz) upon exposure to negative emotional stimuli. Clinical correlation analysis showed that the history, attack frequency, duration, and neuropsychological scales of the migraine patients had a negative correlation with the network parameters in certain frequency ranges. Conclusions The results suggested that the individuals with migraine showed deviant effective connectivity in viewing the human facial expressions in multi-frequencies. The prefrontal-temporal pathway might be related to the altered negative emotional modulation in migraine. These findings suggested that migraine might be characterized by more universal altered cerebral processing of negative stimuli. Since the significant result in this study was frequency-specific, more independent replicative studies are needed to confirm these results, and to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and emotional conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Sergey Danilin ◽  
João Barbosa ◽  
Michael Farage ◽  
Zimo Zhao ◽  
Xiaobang Shang ◽  

AbstractElectromagnetic filtering is essential for the coherent control, operation and readout of superconducting quantum circuits at milliKelvin temperatures. The suppression of spurious modes around transition frequencies of a few GHz is well understood and mainly achieved by on-chip and package considerations. Noise photons of higher frequencies – beyond the pair-breaking energies – cause decoherence and require spectral engineering before reaching the packaged quantum chip. The external wires that pass into the refrigerator and go down to the quantum circuit provide a direct path for these photons. This article contains quantitative analysis and experimental data for the noise photon flux through coaxial, filtered wiring. The attenuation of the coaxial cable at room temperature and the noise photon flux estimates for typical wiring configurations are provided. Compact cryogenic microwave low-pass filters with CR-110 and Esorb-230 absorptive dielectric fillings are presented along with experimental data at room and cryogenic temperatures up to 70 GHz. Filter cut-off frequencies between 1 to 10 GHz are set by the filter length, and the roll-off is material dependent. The relative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability for the Esorb-230 material in the pair-breaking frequency range of 75 to 110 GHz are measured, and the filter properties in this frequency range are calculated. The estimated dramatic suppression of the noise photon flux due to the filter proves its usefulness for experiments with superconducting quantum systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 131 (2) ◽  
pp. 025305
Vadim S. Nozdrin ◽  
Gennadiy A. Komandin ◽  
Igor E. Spektor ◽  
Nikita V. Chernomyrdin ◽  
Dmitry S. Seregin ◽  

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 597
Tomasz Boczar ◽  
Dariusz Zmarzły ◽  
Michał Kozioł ◽  
Łukasz Nagi ◽  
Daria Wotzka ◽  

The research reported in this paper involves the development and refinement of methods applicable to the measurement and analysis of infrasound signals generated by the operation of wind turbines. In particular, the presentation focuses on the use of a new system that is applied for simultaneous recording of acoustic signals in the low-frequency range emitted by wind farms in three independent and identical measurement setups. A comparative analysis of the proposed new system was made with the Brüel & Kjaer measurement, a commonly used methodology, which meets the requirements of the IEC 61400-11 standard. The paper focuses on the results of frequency and time-frequency analysis of infrasound signals recorded throughout the operation of a wind turbine with a rated capacity of 2 MW. The use of a correlated system with three simultaneous measurement systems can be a new and alternative measurement method that will eliminate the drawbacks of previous approaches.

2022 ◽  
Anna Oleshkevich ◽  
Elena Yarygina

The functional activity stimulation of cell cultures was tested in MDBK cell culture, photobacteria AliivibriofischeriandHalobacteriumhalobium. Theaim of the investigation was to increase the ”yield” of the cells using an environmentallysafe stimulant and membrane-tropic agent that isalso safe for the experimenter. Ultrasonicwaves were used.Experimental ultrasonic exposure varied within the following limits: time from 1 to 300 sec, SATA-intensity of 0.01–2.0 W/cm2, generation frequency of 0.88 or 2.64 MHz, standing or traveling wave. The modulation frequency range was within 0.1–150 Hz. The devices used were: UST-1-01F, UST-5 and UST1.02C. The modulating generators were G3–112 and CP–110.Stimulation of MDBK cell growth was initiated by US-intensity of 0.03–0.05 W/cm2 , with an exposure of 5–30 sec.Exposure to ultrasound with an intensity of 0.2–0.4 W/cm2 (for 3 min) had a stimulating effect on bioluminescence and was associated with an increase in the growth rate ofA. fischeri. The findings indicated that 0.4 W/cm2ultrasonic intensity and modulation frequencies from 0.25 to 0.7 Hz can stimulate the growth of archaea.It was revealed that the maximum proliferation index in all cases of stimulant application was noted in cultures with minimal initial proliferative activity in the control.The authors expect thatthese results on the possibilities of acoustic continuous and modulated waves can be applied for biotechnological purposes to develop a new biotechnological method. Keywords: cell culture, ultrasound, proliferation, stimulation

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 493
Fares Zouaoui ◽  
Saliha Bourouina-Bacha ◽  
Mustapha Bourouina ◽  
Nadia Zine ◽  
Abdelhamid Errachid ◽  

The massive and careless use of glyphosate (GLY) in agricultural production raises many questions regarding environmental pollution and health risks, it is then important to develop simple methods to detect it. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective analytical tool for characterizing properties at the electrode/electrolyte interface. It is useful as an analytical procedure, but it can also help in the interpretation of the involved fundamental electrochemical and electronic processes. In this study, the impedance data obtained experimentally for a microsensor based on molecularly imprinted chitosan graft on 4-aminophenylacetic acid for the detection of glyphosate was analyzed using an exact mathematical model based on physical theories. The procedure for modeling experimental responses is well explained. The analysis of the observed impedance response leads to estimations of the microscopic parameters linked to the faradic and capacitive current. The interaction of glyphosate molecules with the imprinted sites of the CS-MIPs film is observed in the high frequency range. The relative variation of the charge transfer resistance is proportional to the log of the concentration of glyphosate. The capacitance decreases as the concentration of glyphosate increases, which is explained by the discharging of the charged imprinted sites when the glyphosate molecule interacts with the imprinted sites through electrostatic interactions. The phenomenon of adsorption of the ions in the CMA film is observed in the low frequency range, this phenomenon being balanced by the electrostatic interaction of glyphosate with the imprinted sites in the CS-MIPs film.

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