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Medhal Bharathraj Kumar ◽  
Praveen Jayappa

Microstrip antenna is broadly used in the modern communication system due to its significant features such as light weight, inexpensive, low profile, and ease of integration with radio frequency devices. The fractal shape is applied in antenna geometry to obtain the ultra-wideband antennas. In this paper, the sierpinski carpet fractal monopole antenna (SCFMA) is developed for base case, first iteration and second iteration to obtain the wideband based on its space filling and self-similar characteristics. The dimension of the monopole patch size is optimized to minimize the overall dimension of the fractal antenna. Moreover, the optimized planar structure is proposed using the microstrip line feed. The monopole antenna is mounted on the FR4 substrate with the thickness of 1.6 mm with loss tangent of 0.02 and relative permittivity of 4.4. The performance of this SCFMA is analyzed in terms of area, bandwidth, return loss, voltage standing wave ratio, radiation pattern and gain. The proposed fractal antenna achieves three different bandwidth ranges such as 2.6-4.0 GHz, 2.5-4.3 GHz and 2.4-4.4 GHz for base case, first and second iteration respectively. The proposed SCFMA is compared with existing fractal antennas to prove the efficiency of the SCFMA design. The area of the SCFMA is 25×20 mm<sup>2</sup>, which is less when compared to the existing fractal antennas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Leixin Wei ◽  
Chen Xu ◽  
Minjie Dong ◽  
Yibo Dou ◽  
Ye Tian ◽  

Abstract Background Although ACDF has been widely used in treating cervical spondylosis and related diseases, the complications along with this anterior surgical technique have hindered its application and affected the postoperative outcome of the patients. Here, we investigated the clinical and radiological outcomes of a new integrated low-profile anterior plate and cage system for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in treating cervical spondylosis. Methods A total of 96 cervical spondylosis patients who underwent single-level ACDF between 2018 to 2020 in our institute were enrolled. There were 28 patients using the new implants and 68 patients using the zero-profile (Zero-P) implants. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and the visual analog scale (VAS) were used to evaluate the clinical outcomes. The cervical and segmental Cobb angle and range of motion (ROM) were used to assessed the radiological outcomes. Incidence of complications were also recorded. All data were recorded at pre-operation, 6-month and 12-month post-operation. Results All patients were followed-up for at least 1-year, the mean follow-up time was over one year. The fusion rate was similar in the two groups. There was no significant difference in the postoperative JOA score recovery rate, postoperative VAS score of neck and arm pain, postoperative ROM, and incidence of complications between two groups (P > 0.05). However, postoperative cervical and segmental Cobb angle were better maintained in the new low-profile implant group compared to Zero-P group. Conclusions The clinical outcomes of the new low-profile implant were satisfactory and comparable to that of zero-profile system. It may have advantages in improving and maintaining the cervical lordosis, and can be an alternative device for single-level cervical spondylosis treated with ACDF.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Jiaying Zhang ◽  
Jin Huang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Fanbo Meng ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  

With the advent of wearable communication devices, microstrip antennas have developed multiple applications due to their ultra-low-profile properties. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the problem of frequency shift and impedance mismatch when the antenna is bent. For the case of a rectangular patch antenna E-plane bent on the cylindrical surface, (1) this paper introduces the effective dielectric constant into the cavity model, which can accurately predict the resonance frequency of the antenna, and (2) according to the equivalent circuit model of the antenna resonance mode, the lumped element parameters are calculated based on the above effective dielectric constant, so that impedance characteristics and the S-parameter matching the port can be quickly constructed. From the perspective of circuit frequency characteristics, it explains the change in the transmission performance of the curved antenna. The experimental results show that the maximum difference between the experimental and theoretical calculation frequencies is less than 1%. These results verify the validity and applicability of the theory in the analysis of ultra-low-profile patch antennas and wearable electronic communication devices. It provides a theoretical basis for the fast impedance matching of patch antennas under different working conditions.

2022 ◽  
Nitish Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaganpreet Singh ◽  
Harshawardhan Wanare ◽  
S Anantha Ramakrishna ◽  
Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava ◽  

Abstract This work pertains to the design, numerical investigation, and experimental demonstration of an optically transparent, lightweight, and conformable metastructure that exhibits multispectral signature management capabilities despite its extremely low-profile configuration. In comparison to the existing hierarchical approaches of designing multispectral stealth solutions, attention has been paid to accommodate the conflicting requirements of radar and infrared stealth using a single metasurface layer configuration, which required a few constraints to be incorporated during the design stage to ensure compatibility. This methodlogy promulgates the desired multispectral response with minimal manufacturing footprint and facilitates an efficient integration with the other existing countermeasure platforms. The resulting design exhibits a polarization-insensitive and incident angle stable broadband microwave absorption with at least 90% absorption ranging from 8.2 to 18.4 GHz. Concomitantly it also exhibits an averaged infrared emissivity of 0.46 in the 8-14µm long-wave infrared regime, along with high optical transparency (71% transmission at 632.8nm). Notably, the total thickness of the metastructure stands at 0.10λ_L (λ_L corresponds to the wavelength at lowest frequency). The metastructure has been fabricated with ITO coated PET sheets, on which the frequency selective pattern is machined using Excimer laser micromachining, and the performances are verified experimentally. Furthermore, a hybrid theoretical model has been developed that not only provides crucial insights into the operation of metastructure but also presents a methodical semi-analytical approach to design.

Significance The China-US joint declaration to enhance climate cooperation, made on the final day of the summit, gives cause for optimism, despite bilateral relations worsening overall. China’s low profile at the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow last November should not be taken as indicating that the country is wavering on its commitment to climate action. Impacts There will be strong political pressure within China to meet climate targets ahead of time. China’s announcement that it will no longer finance overseas coal projects is a clear signal of support for the greening of BRI investments. Beijing will continue pushing for developed countries to meet climate finance commitments to developing countries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Wei Xu ◽  
Jingchang Nan ◽  
Mingming Gao

A compact circularly polarized (CP) antenna is proposed for low-profile and wideband operation based on characteristic mode analysis (CMA). A ring patch with a gap and two arc-shaped metallic stubs as the radiator is analyzed and optimized by CMA to figure out the orthogonal modes and operating frequency band for potential good axial ratio (AR) performance. The studies of these CP modes provide a physical insight into the property of broadband circular polarization. Such an in-depth understanding paves the way for the proposal of novel CP antenna with separation between the design of radiator and feeding network. A 50-Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) is introduced and placed appropriately to excite the desired modes based on the information from CMA, which employs two asymmetric ground planes to improve the performance in terms of AR and impedance matching. The antenna with a compact size of 0.71λ0 × 0.76λ0 × 0.038λ0 (λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the center frequency of the 3-dB AR bandwidth) is fabricated and measured for validation. The realized gain varies from 1.6 to 3.1 dBic over the operating bandwidth characterized by the measured 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 83.8% (3.98–9.72 GHz) and 3-dB AR bandwidth of 70.3% (4.59–9.57 GHz), respectively.

Hend A. Malhat ◽  
Sarah Elgiddawy ◽  
Saber Zainud-Deen ◽  
Hesham F. A. Hamed ◽  
Ahmed A. Ibrahim

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jinxing Li ◽  
Guohui Yang ◽  
Yueyi Yuan ◽  
Qun Wu ◽  
Kuang Zhang

The metasurface-based superoscillatory lens has been demonstrated to be effective in finely tailoring the wavefront of light to generate focal spots beyond the diffraction limit in the far-field that is capable of improving the resolution of the imaging system. In this paper, an ultra-thin (0.055 λ0) metasurface-based superoscillatory lens (SOL) that can generate a sub-diffraction optical needle with a long focal depth is proposed, which is constructed by ultra-thin chiral unit cells containing two metal split-ring resonators (SRR) with a 90° twisted angle difference cladded on both sides of a 1.5 mm-thick dielectric substrate, with a high linear cross-polarized transmission coefficient around 0.9 and full phase control capability at 11 GHz. Full-wave simulation shows that SOL generates a sub-diffraction optical needle within 10.5–11.5 GHz. At the center frequency, the focal depth is 281 mm (10.3 λ0) within 105–386 mm, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 18.5 mm (0.68 λ0), about 0.7 times the diffraction limit, generally consistent with the theoretical result. The proposed ultra-thin chiral metasurface-based SOL holds great potential in integrating into practical imaging applications for its simple fabrication, high efficiency, and low-profile advantages.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152660282110687
August Ysa ◽  
Marta Lobato ◽  
Ana M. Quintana ◽  
Leire Ortiz de Salazar ◽  
Roberto Gómez ◽  

Purpose: To describe a novel bailout technique to approach below-the-knee chronic total occlusions after a failed bidirectional recanalization attempt using the plantar loop maneuver in patients who are poor candidates for a retrograde puncture. Technique: After a failure of recanalization of the opposite tibial artery using the plantar loop maneuver, an assisted direct retrograde transpedal approach can be performed regardless of poor vessel caliber or even arterial occlusion. After crossing the plantar arch, a low profile angioplasty balloon is used as a landmark for the pedal puncture and to give guidance for the wire advancement from the new access. Conclusion: A balloon-assisted retrograde transpedal approach may be considered for below-the-knee recanalization after standard plantar loop technique failure in patients who are not candidates for conventional retrograde puncture.

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