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Sarmad K. Ibrahim ◽  
Saif A. Abdulhussien

<span>The downlink multi-user precoding of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) method includes optimal channel state information at the base station and a variety of linear precoding (LP) schemes. Maximum ratio transmission (MRT) is among the common precoding schemes but does not provide good performance with massive MIMO, such as high bit error rate (BER) and low throughput. The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and precoding schemes used in 5G have a flaw in high-speed environments. Given that the Doppler effect induces frequency changes, orthogonality between OFDM subcarriers is disrupted and their throughput output is decreased and BER is decreased. This study focuses on solving this problem by improving the performance of a 5G system with MRT, specifically by using a new design that includes weighted overlap and add (WOLA) with MRT. The current research also compares the standard system MRT with OFDM with the proposed design (WOLA-MRT) to find the best performance on throughput and BER. Improved system results show outstanding performance enhancement over a standard system, and numerous improvements with massive MIMO, such as best BER and throughput. Its approximately 60% more throughput than the traditional systems. Lastly, the proposed system improves BER by approximately 2% compared with the traditional system.</span>

Hong Son Vu ◽  
Kien Truong ◽  
Minh Thuy Le

<p>Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are considered a promising solution to minimize multiuser interference (MUI) based on simple precoding techniques with a massive antenna array at a base station (BS). This paper presents a novel approach of beam division multiple access (BDMA) which BS transmit signals to multiusers at the same time via different beams based on hybrid beamforming and user-beam schedule. With the selection of users whose steering vectors are orthogonal to each other, interference between users is significantly improved. While, the efficiency spectrum of proposed scheme reaches to the performance of fully digital solutions, the multiuser interference is considerably reduced.</p>

Sonti Swapna

Abstract: A combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technologies can be employed in modern wireless communication systems to achieve high data rates and improved spectrum efficiency. For multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, this paper provides a Rayleigh fading channel estimation technique based on pilot carriers. The channel is estimated using traditional Least Square (LS) and Minimum Mean Square (MMSE) estimation techniques. The MIMO-OFDM system's performance is measured using the Bit Error Rate (BER) and Mean Square Error (MSE) levels. Keywords: MIMO, MMSE, Channel estimation, BER, OFDM

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Jianlin Huang ◽  
Zhuoni Chen ◽  
Qibo Cai ◽  
Tian Hong Loh ◽  
Gui Liu

A multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array for triple-band 5G metal-frame smartphone applications is proposed in this paper. Each single antenna element consists of an S-shaped feeding strip and an L-shaped radiation strip on the metal frame. The dimension of the antenna element is only 6.5 mm × 7 mm (0.076 λ0 × 0.082 λ0, λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the frequency of 3.5 GHz). The −6 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed eight-antenna array can cover 3.3–3.8 GHz, 4.8–5 GHz, and 5.15–5.925 GHz. The evolution design and the analysis of the optimal parameters for a single antenna element are derived to investigate the principle of the antenna. The measured total efficiency is larger than 70%. The measured isolation is better than 13 dB. The measurements of the prototype agree well with the simulation results.

2022 ◽  
Chen Wei ◽  
Kui Xu ◽  
Zhexian Shen ◽  
Xiaochen Xia ◽  
Wei Xie ◽  

Abstract In this paper, we investigate the uplink transmission for user-centric cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The largest-large-scale-fading-based access point (AP) selection method is adopted to achieve a user-centric operation. Under this user-centric framework, we propose a novel inter-cluster interference-based (IC-IB) pilot assignment scheme to alleviate pilot contamination. Considering the local characteristics of channel estimates and statistics, we propose a location-aided distributed uplink combining scheme based on a novel proposed metric representing inter-user interference to balance the relationship among the spectral efficiency (SE), user equipment (UE) fairness and complexity, in which the normalized local partial minimum mean-squared error (LP-MMSE) combining is adopted for some APs, while the normalized maximum ratio (MR) combining is adopted for the remaining APs. A new closed-form SE expression using the normalized MR combining is derived and a novel metric to indicate the UE fairness is also proposed. Moreover, the max-min fairness (MMF) power control algorithm is utilized to further ensure uniformly good service to the UEs. Simulation results demonstrate that the channel estimation accuracy of our proposed IC-IB pilot assignment scheme outperforms that of the conventional pilot assignment schemes. Furthermore, although the proposed location-aided uplink combining scheme is not always the best in terms of the per-UE SE, it can provide the more fairness among UEs and can achieve a good trade-off between the average SE and computational complexity.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 251
Arpan Desai ◽  
Merih Palandoken ◽  
Issa Elfergani ◽  
Ismail Akdag ◽  
Chemseddine Zebiri ◽  

A dual-port transparent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna resonating at sub-6 GHz 5G band is proposed by using patch/ground material as transparent conductive oxide (AgHT-8) and a transparent Plexiglas substrate. Two identical circular-shaped radiating elements fed by using a microstrip feedline are designed using the finite element method (FEM) based high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) software. The effect of the isolation mechanism is discussed using two cases. In case 1, the two horizontally positioned elements are oriented in a similar direction with a separate ground plane, whereas in case 2, the elements are vertically placed facing opposite to each other with an allied ground. In both cases, the transparent antennas span over a −10 dB band of 4.65 to 4.97 GHz (300 MHz) with isolation greater than 15 dB among two elements. The diversity parameters are also analyzed for both the cases covering the correlation coefficient (ECC), mean effective gain (MEG), diversity gain (DG), and channel capacity loss (CCL). The average gain and efficiency above 1 dBi and 45%, respectively with satisfactory MIMO diversity performance, makes the transparent MIMO antenna an appropriate choice for smart IoT devices working in the sub-6 GHz 5G band by mitigating the co-site location and visual clutter issues.

Yibin Liu ◽  
Chunyang Wang ◽  
Jian Gong ◽  
Ming Tan

Abstract By combining multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology and multiple matched filters with frequency diverse array (FDA), FDA-MIMO radar can be used to achieve two-dimensional target localization with range and angle. In this paper, we propose two FDA-MIMO multi-pulse target localization methods based on tensor decomposition. Based on the canonical polyadic decomposition theory, the signal models of CPD-DP-FDA with double-pulse and CPD-SP-FDA with stepped frequency pulses are established. By analyzing the signal processing procedures of the two schemes, the indicator beampattern used for target localization is obtained. The parameter estimation accuracy of the proposed method is investigated in single target and multiple targets scenarios, and the proposed method is compared with the traditional double-pulse method. The results show that the target localization method based on tensor decomposition can effectively solve the problem of multi-target indication ambiguity. The target positioning effect can be further improved by combining stepped frequency pulses. The derivation of Cramer–Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) demonstrates the superiority of the method.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 519
Gianmarco Romano

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) communication systems and the use of millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) bands represent key technologies that are expected to meet the growing demand of data traffic and the explosion of the number of devices that need to communicate over 5G/6G wireless networks [...]

2022 ◽  
Chandan Kumar Sheemar ◽  
Dirk Slock

This paper presents two novel hybrid beamforming (HYBF) designs for a multi-cell massive multiple-input-multiple-output (mMIMO) millimeter wave (mmWave) full duplex (FD) system under limited dynamic range (LDR). Firstly, we present a novel centralized HYBF (C-HYBF) scheme based on alternating optimization. In general, the complexity of C-HYBF schemes scales quadratically as a function of the number of users and cells, which may limit their scalability. Moreover, they require significant communication overhead to transfer complete channel state information (CSI) to the central node every channel coherence time for optimization. The central node also requires very high computational power to jointly optimize many variables for the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) users in FD systems. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a very low-complexity and scalable cooperative per-link parallel and distributed (P$\&$D)-HYBF scheme. It allows each mmWave FD base station (BS) to update the beamformers for its users in a distributed fashion and independently in parallel on different computational processors. The complexity of P$\&$D-HYBF scales only linearly as the network size grows, making it desirable for the next generation of large and dense mmWave FD networks. Simulation results show that both designs significantly outperform the fully digital half duplex (HD) system with only a few radio-frequency (RF) chains and achieve similar performance. <br>

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Lekha Kannappan ◽  
Sandeep Kumar Palaniswamy ◽  
Malathi Kanagasabai ◽  
Preetam Kumar ◽  
M. Gulam Nabi Alsath ◽  

AbstractThis paper presents a twelve-port ultra-wideband multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)/diversity antenna integrated with GSM and Bluetooth bands. The twelve-port antenna is constructed by arranging four elements in the horizontal plane and eight elements in the vertical plane. The antenna element, which is created using a simple rectangular monopole, exhibits a frequency range of 3.1 to 12 GHz. The additional Bluetooth and GSM bands are achieved by introducing stubs into the ground plane. The size of the MIMO antenna is 100 × 100 mm2. The antenna offers polarization diversity, with vertical and horizontal polarization in each plane. The diversity antenna has a bandwidth of 1.7–1.9 GHz, 2.35–2.55 GHz, and 3–12 GHz, the radiation efficiency of 90%, and peak gain of 2.19 dBi. The proposed antenna offers an envelope correlation coefficient of < 0.12, apparent diversity gain of > 9.9 dB, effective diversity gain of > 8.9 dB, mean effective gain of < 1 dB, and channel capacity loss of < 0.35 bits/s/Hz. Also, the MIMO antenna is tested for housing effects in order to determine its suitability for automotive applications.

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