nuclear safety
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2022 ◽  
Vol 85 ◽  
pp. 102378
Markus Schöbel ◽  
Inmaculada Silla ◽  
Anna-Maria Teperi ◽  
Robin Gustafsson ◽  
Antti Piirto ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 157 ◽  
pp. 112002
Jacqueline C.K. Lam ◽  
Lawrence Y.L. Cheung ◽  
Yang Han ◽  
Shanshan Wang

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zhiyi Yang ◽  
Fengchen Li ◽  
Guohan Chai

The significant impact brought by a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Japan in March 2011 has made global regulators to review the requirements against severe accidents. In China, comprehensive safety inspection and external hazard safety margin assessment on NPPs were carried out, regulatory requirements on improvement measures for NPPs based on the inspection were given, the nuclear safety 5-year plan was made and executed, and the safety requirements on the new NPP design were drafted. The Nuclear Safety Law came into effect in 2018. The “Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Design” (HAF102) was revised in 2016, and relevant safety guides were developed. In this article, improvement actions and requirements about NPP safety in China over the past 10 years were reviewed, and the nuclear safety philosophy and requirements including practical elimination, classification of accident conditions, and defense in depth portable equipment were elaborated. In summary, some suggestions of NPP safety in China in the future were provided.

Nuclear Law ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 75-84
Richard Meserve

AbstractNuclear power is an important component of the global response to climate change. Nuclear power provides continuous electricity and can overcome the intermittency of the renewable energy sources dependent on wind and sun. Assurance of nuclear safety is essential for further expanding nuclear power as a part of the global response to climate change. The commitment to safety must be a universal priority, as the prospects for nuclear power everywhere would be adversely influenced by the public outcry following a serious nuclear event anywhere. The importance of the global nuclear safety regime was revealed by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The accident reinforced that in addition to the need to have a competent national nuclear safety system in place, it is ultimately important to have an international system that ensures that the relevant national institutions diligently and effectively fulfil their roles. This chapter examines the current global nuclear safety regime and suggests improvements, including through safety inspection, greater transparency measures, increased harmonization of standards, and others.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xinli Gao ◽  
Jianping Jing ◽  
Xiangzhen Han ◽  
Bin Jia ◽  
Xinlu Tian ◽  

In recent years, China’s nuclear power industry has enjoyed a good momentum of development, and related companies have also developed many nuclear analysis software applications. However, as the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA, Chinese nuclear regulatory institution) did not approve any software before 2018, all these software applications were not evaluated formally, so they have not yet been used in reactor safety analysis. In order to solve this problem, in 2018, the National Nuclear Safety Administration started to carry out an engineering applicability evaluation for software developed by Chinese companies. After several years of review, as the first approved Chinese domestic software, core physics analysis software PCM developed by the China General Nuclear Power Group officially passed the software safety evaluation of the China Nuclear Safety Administration. This study will present the basic situation of the development of China’s nuclear power engineering software and introduce the framework, methods, procedures, requirements, and other aspects of China’s software safety evaluation work. The evaluation process and evaluation key issues of PCM software will also be illustrated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 14033
Miaomiao Yin ◽  
Keyuan Zou

The precautionary principle has been implemented in many fields including environment protection, biological diversity, and climate change. In the field of international nuclear safety regulation, the implementation of this principle is in an ongoing process. Since Japan declared to discharge Fukushima nuclear waste water into the ocean, the precautionary principle was put on the stage, and some debates are invoked on it. As is observed by this article, the precautionary principle has not been effectively implemented in nuclear safety regulation, specifically in nuclear safety law making, law enforcement, and judicial application. The reasons can be found from two main challenges: indeterminacy of perceived risk level required to justify precautionary action and hard balance of national interest and community interest in nuclear safety. In a long-term perspective, the framework of international nuclear safety regulation has to respond to these challenges, both by clarifying the precautionary principle in legal binding nuclear safety documents and moving towards a more transparent, fair, and effective enforcement regime in order to promote safer, more sustainable, and efficient civilian nuclear utilization around the world.

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