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2021 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 100732
Author(s):  
Davide Contu ◽  
Ozgur Kaya ◽  
Ilker Kaya

2021 ◽  
Vol 96 ◽  
pp. 107477
Author(s):  
Hassan Haes Alhelou ◽  
Mohamad Esmail Hamedani Golshan ◽  
Pierluigi Siano

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 101869
Author(s):  
Ahmed Ghazi ◽  
Nitin Sharma

Author(s):  
Nisreen Kadhim Jawad ◽  
Ebaa A. Hamooshy

Nanotechnology has begun to be used to solve or at least mitigate environmental pollution problems, and in turn has provided a great opportunity to develop some strategies to protect the environment from pollution. Nanotechnology enables having the possibility to increase the efficiency of energy consumption, produce clean energy sources, solve the problem of water and air pollution and other environmental problems by developing new ways to provide and treat drinking water and discover air pollution. This stimulated the United Nations to pay attention to it and to monitor a plan to benefit from its applications in various fields. This paper reviews the impacts of nanotechnology on such environmental issues.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Li-Jun Liu ◽  
Zhen Jiang ◽  
Pei Wang ◽  
Ya-Ling Qin ◽  
Wen Xu ◽  
...  

The order Sulfolobales (phylum Crenarchaeota) is a group of thermoacidophilic archaea. The first member of the Sulfolobales was discovered in 1972, and current 23 species are validly named under the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes. The majority of members of the Sulfolobales is obligately or facultatively chemolithoautotrophic. When they grow autotrophically, elemental sulfur or reduced inorganic sulfur compounds are their energy sources. Therefore, sulfur metabolism is the most important physiological characteristic of the Sulfolobales. The functions of some enzymes and proteins involved in sulfur reduction, sulfur oxidation, sulfide oxidation, thiosulfate oxidation, sulfite oxidation, tetrathionate hydrolysis, and sulfur trafficking have been determined. In this review, we describe current knowledge about the physiology, taxonomy, and sulfur metabolism of the Sulfolobales, and note future challenges in this field.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6639
Author(s):  
Ifedayo Oladeji ◽  
Ramon Zamora ◽  
Tek Tjing Lie

The proliferation of renewable energy sources distributed generation (RES-DG) into the grid results in time-varying inertia constant. To ensure the security of the grid under varying inertia, techniques for fast security assessment are required. In addition, considering the high penetration of RES-DG units into the modern grids, security prediction using varying grid features is crucial. The computation burden concerns of conventional time-domain security assessment techniques make it unsuitable for real-time security prediction. This paper, therefore, proposes a fast security monitoring model that includes security prediction and load shedding for security control. The attributes considered in this paper include the load level, inertia constant, fault location, and power dispatched from the renewable energy sources generator. An incremental Naïve Bayes algorithm is applied on the training dataset developed from the responses of the grid to transient stability simulations. An additive Gaussian process regression (GPR) model is proposed to estimate the load shedding required for the predicted insecure states. Finally, an algorithm based on the nodes’ security margin is proposed to determine the optimal node (s) for the load shedding. The average security prediction and load shedding estimation model training times are 1.2 s and 3 s, respectively. The result shows that the proposed model can predict the security of the grid, estimate the amount of load shed required, and determine the specific node for load shedding operation.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6643
Author(s):  
Ilman Sulaeman ◽  
Desmon Petrus Simatupang ◽  
Brandon Kristiano Noya ◽  
Amalia Suryani ◽  
Niek Moonen ◽  
...  

Although Indonesia’s electrification ratio reached 99.2% in 2020, it has shown stagnating electrification since 2018. This is because most of the remaining areas that need to be electrified are remote and have unique characteristics that hamper implementation of microgrids for providing energy access. Furthermore, not only the deployment but also the long-term sustainability of microgrids is crucial for ensuring continuity of energy access. This paper aims to investigate the scaling and sustainability challenges of remote microgrid development in Indonesia by analyzing microgrids in the Maluku and North Maluku provinces. This study is a two-part publication; the first part focuses on identifying challenges in Indonesia’s remote microgrid development, while the second part focuses on potential technology solutions. In the first part, an assessment of energy access within a multi-tier framework was conducted, which was then analyzed using a multi-dimensional (institutional, social, technical, economic, environmental, and policy) approach adapted from the literature. The framework was expanded by mapping the challenges onto specific phases of the microgrid development, which is intended to be helpful for the parties involved in specific phases. It is shown that the challenges related to unclear land status, lack of social engagement, preliminary survey, technical and practical knowledge, and O&M procedures—especially for remote microgrids with renewable energy sources—are the most prominent issues. Additionally, issues caused by electrical events and environmental conditions such as relatively humid and high-temperatures, and uncontrolled vegetation, rodents, insects, and lizards are often found. Furthermore, a high-level technological outlook to address some of these issues is presented.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6655
Author(s):  
Ning Zhang ◽  
Nien-Che Yang ◽  
Jian-Hong Liu

Power system scheduling of renewable energy sources has been studied extensively due to the severe increase in pollution caused by conventional energy sources. In this study, a multi-objective scheduling model of a hybrid microgrid is proposed to minimize the cost of hybrid microgrids and maximize the power supply reliability. The main power generation units such as the wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) cells, and battery banks are used in this hybrid microgrid. In this study, the optimal sizing of PV panels and battery banks are obtained using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) for the proposed multi-objective scheduling model. The lifetime of battery banks is considered in the energy storage system (ESS) model. Finally, the practicality of the scheduling model proposed in this study is verified by four examples.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6622
Author(s):  
Domagoj Badanjak ◽  
Hrvoje Pandžić

In modern power systems high penetration of renewable energy sources and decentralized paradigm are regarded as the path toward more sustainable electricity landscape. This includes distributed energy resources whose intermittency and uncertainty may cause issues to the system operators. Distribution system operators have an obligation to ensure secure and stable system operation. Hence, they seek the most efficient methods to deal with these challenges. Flexibility procurement is considered as one of the prerequisites for painless and successful integration of renewable sources. Furthermore, distribution-level flexibility markets are modeled and tested to trade flexibility locally, solve congestion issues and defer grid expansion. This paper surveys the ongoing research in the field of flexibility markets, its design, open questions and most promising research projects. The key stakeholders are identified, overview of the current trends in the power system and research initiatives are presented, accompanied with the dilemmas being discussed in the power systems community.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6638
Author(s):  
Dariusz Fuksa

This article analyses opportunities and threats for the Polish power industry resulting from the EU climate and energy policy. The main assumptions of the policy and directives resulting from it with regard to climate protection and the use of renewable energy sources (RES) in the production of electricity and heat are presented. The negative effects (threats) for Poland in meeting the EU requirements are discussed. The paper also discusses the opportunities for Polish coal, proposing solutions to meet EU directives and to maintain energy security without having to give up Polish coal. Reference is made as well to the plans to liquidate the Polish mining industry, indicating solutions opposing such actions.


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