software applications
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Lana Josipović ◽  
Shabnam Sheikhha ◽  
Andrea Guerrieri ◽  
Paolo Ienne ◽  
Jordi Cortadella

Commercial high-level synthesis tools typically produce statically scheduled circuits. Yet, effective C-to-circuit conversion of arbitrary software applications calls for dataflow circuits, as they can handle efficiently variable latencies (e.g., caches), unpredictable memory dependencies, and irregular control flow. Dataflow circuits exhibit an unconventional property: registers (usually referred to as “buffers”) can be placed anywhere in the circuit without changing its semantics, in strong contrast to what happens in traditional datapaths. Yet, although functionally irrelevant, this placement has a significant impact on the circuit’s timing and throughput. In this work, we show how to strategically place buffers into a dataflow circuit to optimize its performance. Our approach extracts a set of choice-free critical loops from arbitrary dataflow circuits and relies on the theory of marked graphs to optimize the buffer placement and sizing. Our performance optimization model supports important high-level synthesis features such as pipelined computational units, units with variable latency and throughput, and if-conversion. We demonstrate the performance benefits of our approach on a set of dataflow circuits obtained from imperative code.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Atakan Doğan ◽  
Kemal Ebcioğlu

Hardware-accelerated cloud computing systems based on FPGA chips (FPGA cloud) or ASIC chips (ASIC cloud) have emerged as a new technology trend for power-efficient acceleration of various software applications. However, the operating systems and hypervisors currently used in cloud computing will lead to power, performance, and scalability problems in an exascale cloud computing environment. Consequently, the present study proposes a parallel hardware hypervisor system that is implemented entirely in special-purpose hardware, and that virtualizes application-specific multi-chip supercomputers, to enable virtual supercomputers to share available FPGA and ASIC resources in a cloud system. In addition to the virtualization of multi-chip supercomputers, the system’s other unique features include simultaneous migration of multiple communicating hardware tasks, and on-demand increase or decrease of hardware resources allocated to a virtual supercomputer. Partitioning the flat hardware design of the proposed hypervisor system into multiple partitions and applying the chip unioning technique to its partitions, the present study introduces a cloud building block chip that can be used to create FPGA or ASIC clouds as well. Single-chip and multi-chip verification studies have been done to verify the functional correctness of the hypervisor system, which consumes only a fraction of (10%) hardware resources.

Özlem (Gökkurt) Bayram ◽  
Fahrettin Özdemirci ◽  
M. Taylan Güvercin

Information ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Angela Borchert ◽  
Maritta Heisel

This work reviews existing research about attributes, which are assessed by individuals to evaluate the trustworthiness of (i) software applications, (ii) organizations (e.g., service providers), and (iii) other individuals. As these parties are part of social media services, previous research has identified the need for users to assess their trustworthiness. Based on the trustworthiness assessment, users decide whether they want to interact with them and whether such interactions appear safe. The literature review encompasses 264 works from which so-called trustworthiness facets of 100 papers could be identified. In addition to an overview of trustworthiness facets, this work further introduces a guideline for software engineers on how to select appropriate trustworthiness facets during the analysis of the problem space for the development of specific social media applications. It is exemplified by the problem of “catfishing” in online dating.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-70
Hamdi Putra Ahmad

The gadget’s software applications nowadays appear to be highly popular and its use has been elevating among gadget users. This kind of technological advance also touched the Qur’anic learning process in Indonesia. On the one hand, not only does the emergence of Qur’anic learning software stimulate children’s interest, but it also provides a lot of features that will make children quickly understand and practice the Qur’anic reciting. On the other hand, this kind of learning method can threat the value of Qur’anic orthodoxy which had been applied among traditional Muslim societies since the emergence of Islam in Indonesia. Some resources have noted that there were some sacred values and courtesies perpetuated by traditional Muslims while teaching Qur’anic reciting. This article will track the historical journey of Qur’anic learnings in Indonesia and discuss how the emergence of Qur’anic Learning software (as the logical consequence of technological improvement) can threat the existence of some ancient orthodoxies toward the Qur’an. 

Ingeniería ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (3) ◽  
pp. 450-464
Valentina Mejía Gallón ◽  
María Camila Naranjo Cardona ◽  
Juan Ramírez ◽  
Juan Atehortua Carmona ◽  
Juan Felipe Santa-Marin ◽  

Context:  Non-fatal injuries represent a public health issue. Among them, lower limb fractures have a large impact on the costs related to orthopedic treatments. In this work, a three-dimensional reconstruction of the tibia and fibula was performed for biomechanical applications with the purpose of defining the 3D reconstruction parameters that allow reducing patients’ radiation exposure and computational costs.  Method: For the 3D reconstruction, a computerized tomography taken from a volunteer was used, as well as two software applications specialized in DICOM image reconstruction (Mimics Research and 3DSlicer). The number of images included in the volume was modified, and the results were compared. The quality of the reconstructed volumes was verified by comparing the reference volume reconstructed with the total number of images/slices vs. the modified volumes. The MeshLab software was used for this purpose. The analyzed parameters were the distance differences between the reference and the alternative models, as well as the qualitative curvature analysis. Results: The ANOVA results for the Max (maximum distance between meshes) response shows that software and slices are significant factors. However, the software-slices interaction did not have a significant influence. As for the RMS (root mean square) distance response, software, slices, and the software-slices interaction are not significant. For the Mean distance response, slices and the software-slices interaction are not significant. Nevertheless, software significantly influences the response. These results suggest a potential way to reduce the computational cost and the patient’s radiation exposure in future biomechanical and preoperatory analyses, since the same quality can be obtained by including fewer 2D images in the reconstruction. Conclusions: The reconstructed surfaces are smoother when Mimics is used, even though the same smoothness factor was employed in both software applications during the reconstruction. When 16 slices are used (retained every 16 images from the complete original model), the distance differences increased for both bones (tibia and fibula). For the RMS, reducing the number of slices and using either one of the two applications analyzed would not show any significant differences in the reconstruction, thus allowing the potential reduction of radiation exposure of the patient. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to Universidad Nacional de Colombia for funding the project “Estado de esfuerzos en un elemento de osteosíntesis en la consolidación de una fractura de miembro inferior”. 

Mária Babicsné-Horváth ◽  
Károly Hercegfi

Eye-tracking based usability testing and User Experience (UX) research are widespread in the development processes of various types of software; however, there exist specific difficulties during usability tests of three-dimensional (3D) software. Analysing the screen records with gaze plots, heatmaps of fixations, and statistics of Areas of Interests (AOI), methodological problems occur when the participant wants to rotate, zoom, or move the 3D space. The data gained regarded the menu bar is mainly interpretable; however, the data regarded the 3D environment is hardly so, or not at all. Our research tested four software applications with the aforementioned problem in mind: ViveLab and Jack Digital Human Modelling (DHM) and ArchiCAD and CATIA Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. Our original goal was twofold. Firstly, with these usability tests, we aimed to identify issues in the software. Secondly, we tested the utility of a new methodology which was included in the tests. This paper summarizes the results on the methodology based on individual experiments with different software applications. One of the main ideas behind the methodology adopted is to tell the participants (during certain subtasks of the tests) not to move the 3D space while they perform the given tasks at a certain point in the usability test. During the experiments, we applied a Tobii eye-tracking device, and after the task completion, each participant was interviewed. Based on these experiences, the methodology appears to be both useful and applicable, and its visualisation techniques for one or more participants are interpretable.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-33

Smart cities rely on smart technologies in all their possible forms; hence, this chapter is focusing on the state of the art of smart technologies. It describes these smart devices in all their ways and forms. In addition, techniques of software applications that are embedded in these smart devices are described along with their capabilities to adapt automatically and modify behavior to fit a user's environment. A smart city paradigm is also presented that focuses on sensors, smart devices, smart service provider subsystems, and smart sector infrastructure. A broader model of smart cities is discussed, and the chapter provides concrete goals, infrastructure, domains, and constituents. The chapter concludes by examining operation features such as the industrial setting, ubiquity, throughput, channels, and interoperability.

2022 ◽  
pp. 662-682
Takamitsu Aoki ◽  
Noriko Nakagawa ◽  
Ryoichi Ishitobi ◽  
Susumu Nakamura ◽  
Shoko Inoue ◽  

Three programs, DropTalk, Parent-Teacher Notebook, and SmileNote, were developed by teachers at schools for special needs education to help students with various disabilities, in collaboration with businesses supportive of students with disabilities. DropTalk was developed to help students with nonverbal communication by using Pictogram and text overlaid with voice/sound. A digital-based Parent-Teacher Notebook was developed to share the valuable data on each student between their home and school. The shared data are effectively used to build up individual support plans. SmileNote was developed to help students with nonverbal communication disabilities present their wills, hopes, and desires to the classmates and others. In this chapter, the aims and valuable functions in three software applications are described in detail, and self-made contents created with the software and gifted school activities conducted at several schools for special needs education are depicted.

2022 ◽  
pp. 34-53

There is a need to undertake a considerable research and analysis project to search out and gather the requisite information required for business development. A prerequisite is the need to better understand what is meant by the terms data and information, as they are often used interchangeably. What kind of information is required for business development, and where and how it can be found? There is the ‘hard' transaction data from software applications that help manage operations. This data is provided by the information system and can give strategic performance information. A review of the staff competencies can indicate the potential for business advantage. It is helpful to discover the dependencies between business activities. The complexity and volume of data to be searched and analysed indicates a need for a special information management project. It is imperative to store the information appropriately with a clear architectural structure for easy retrieval.

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