Background: Recurrences of hallux valgus can be difficult to manage, especially after a prior simple bunionectomy. This study aimed to present a treatment algorithm for the correction of recurrences after a simple bunionectomy.Methods: This was a single-center, descriptive, and retrospective comparative study. Thirty-four consecutive patients were classified according to the bone stock and the presence or absence of end-stage arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). According to our algorithm, we only performed an osteotomy as the salvage procedure in cases with sufficient bone stock and absence of or mild arthritis. In the other cases, we performed an MTPJ fusion. Exceptionally, we chose a Keller-Brandes arthroplasty for patients with advanced age and comorbidities. Results: We performed 17 scarf osteotomies (50%), 15 MTPJ arthrodeses (44.1%), and 2 Keller-Brandes arthroplasties (5.9%). Following the algorithm, we achieved an improvement of the AOFAS score of >30 points without severe complications in all groups.Conclusions: The proposed operative algorithm successfully addresses the recurrences considering the lack of bone stock and the presence of MTPJ arthritis.Level of EvidenceLevel 3: retrospective comparative study
Background: The stress of foot bone can effectively evaluate the functional damage caused by foot deformity and the results of operation. In this study, the finite element method was used to investigate the degree of displacement of distal chevron osteotomy on metatarsal stress and metatarsophalangeal joint load; Methods: Four finite element models of displacement were established by using the CT images of a patient with moderate hallux valgus (hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were 26.74° and 14.09°, respectively), and the validity of the model was verified. Each finite element model consisted of bones and various cartilage structures, ligaments, and plantar fascia, as well as encapsulated soft tissue. Except for soft tissue, the material properties of other parts were isotropic linear elastic material, and the encapsulated soft tissue was set as nonlinear hyperelastic material. The mesh was tetrahedral mesh. Link elements were used in ligament and plantar fascia. A ground reaction force with a half-body weight was applied at the bottom of the floor to simulate the ground reaction when standing. The upper surfaces of the encapsulated soft tissue, distal tibia, and distal fibula were fixed. The stress distribution of metatarsals and the stress of cartilage of the first metatarsophalangeal joint were compared and analyzed; Results: Compared with the hallux valgus without osteotomy, the stress of the first metatarsals and second metatarsals of 2–4 mm decreased, and the stress of the interarticular cartilage of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with 4 mm was reduced. In the case of 6 mm, the stress value between the first metatarsal and the first metatarsophalangeal joint increased, and 4 mm was the most suitable distance; Conclusions: Compared with the hallux valgus without osteotomy, the stress of the first metatarsals and second metatarsals of 2–4 mm decreased, and the stress of the interarticular cartilage of the first metatarsophalangeal joint with 4 mm was reduced. In the case of 6 mm, the stress value between the first metatarsal and the first metatarsophalangeal joint increased, and 4 mm was the most suitable distance. For the degree of displacement of the distal chevron osteotomy, the postoperative stability and the stress distribution of metatarsal bone should be considered. Factors such as hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, patient’s age, body weight, and metatarsal width should be considered comprehensively. The factors affecting osteotomy need to be further explored. The degree of displacement of osteotomy can be evaluated by FE method before the operation, and the most suitable distance can be obtained.
There has been a paucity of literature revealing the discrepancy between self-recognition about hallux valgus (HV) and radiographically-evaluated foot configuration. Knowing this discrepancy will help to make a comparative review of the findings of previous literatures about epidemiological studies about the prevalence of HV.
(1) Is there a discrepancy between radiographically-assessed and self-recognized HV in the general population? (2) What factors affect the self-recognition of HV in the general population?
The fifth survey of the Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis against Disability study involved 1996 participants who had undergone anterior-posterior radiography of bilateral feet and answered a simple dichotomous questionnaire on self-recognition of HV. Measurements of the HV angle (HVA), interphalangeal angle of the hallux (IPA), and intermetatarsal angle between 1st and 2nd metatarsals (IMA) were performed using radiographs. Radiographic diagnosis of HV was done using the definition of hallux valgus angle of 20° or more. After univariate comparison of the participant backgrounds and radiographic measurements between participants with or without self-recognition of HV, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to reveal independent factors affecting self-recognition.
Significant difference was found between the prevalence of radiographically-assessed and self-recognized HV (29.8% vs. 16.5%, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of self-recognized HV increased with the progression of HV severity from a single-digit percentage (normal grade, HVA < 20°) up to 100% (severe grade, HVA ≥ 40°). A multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that HVA, IMA, and female sex were independent positive factors for self-recognition of HV (HVA [per 1° increase]: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.15–1.20; p < 0.0001; IMA [per 1° increase]: OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09–1.20; p < 0.0001; and female sex [vs. male sex]: OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.35–5.18; p < 0.0001).
There was a significant discrepancy between radiographically-assessed and self-recognized HV which narrowed with the progressing severity of HV. HVA, IMA, and female sex were independent positive factors for self-recognition of HV. Attention needs to be paid to potentially lowered prevalence of HV in epidemiological studies using self-reporting based on self-recognition.