epidemiological studies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 141-149
Yi-Fan Du ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Wei-Ling Bai ◽  
Ru-Yue Li ◽  

AIM: To summarize the data of epidemiological studies on cataract prevalence over 50 years old in urban and rural areas of China from 2000 to 2020, and to analyze the prevalence of cataract and operation rate in China. METHODS: By searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Wanfang Data and CNKI, Chinese and English literatures on the prevalence of cataract in China were retrieved, and the relevant characteristic data were extracted. Then, Stata v15SE software was used for Meta-analysis and heterogeneity test. According to the results of heterogeneity, the corresponding effect models were selected to combine the extracted data. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies were included in this study, with a total of 111 434 cases. Meta-analysis showed heterogeneity. According to the random effect model, the overall prevalence of cataract in Chinese people over 50 years old was 27.45%, that in rural was 28.79%, and that in urban was 26.66%. The overall coverage rate of cataract surgery was 9.19%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cataract is high in China, and there is still room for improvement in surgical coverage, so it is very important to promote cataract screening and prevention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shijie Zhang ◽  
Xiang Tong ◽  
Tianli Zhang ◽  
Dongguang Wang ◽  
Sitong Liu ◽  

BackgroundSarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is associated with poor prognosis, conferring up to a 10-fold increase in mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, but the actual prevalence of SAPH is unknown.MethodsThe PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for epidemiological studies reporting the prevalence of SAPH up to July 2021. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. Studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.ResultsThis meta-analysis included 25 high-quality studies from 12 countries, with a pooled sample of 632,368 patients with sarcoidosis. The prevalence of SAPH by transthoracic echocardiography in Europe, the United States and Asia was 18.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1–26.5%], 13.9% (95% CI: 5.4–22.4%) and 16.2% (95% CI: 7.1–25.4%) separately, and the overall pooled prevalence was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.2–20.5%). By right heart catheterization (RHC), the pooled prevalence of SAPH was 6.4% (95% CI: 3.6–9.1%) in general sarcoidosis population, and subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence of SAPH was 6.7% (95% CI: 2.4–11.0%) in Europe and 8.6% (95% CI: −4.1 to 21.3%) in the United States. Further, the prevalence of pre-capillary PH was 6.5% (95% CI: 2.9–10.2%). For the population with advanced sarcoidosis, the pooled prevalence of SAPH and pre-capillary PH by RHC was as high as 62.3% (95% CI: 46.9–77.6%) and 55.9% (95% CI: 20.1–91.7%), respectively. Finally, the pooled prevalence of SAPH in large databases with documented diagnoses (6.1%, 95% CI: 2.6–9.5%) was similar to that of RHC. Substantial heterogeneity across studies was observed for all analyses (I2 > 80%, P < 0.001).ConclusionsThe sarcoidosis population has a relatively low burden of PH, mainly pre-capillary PH. However, as the disease progresses to advanced sarcoidosis, the prevalence of SAPH increases significantly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gilma Hernández-Herrera ◽  
David Moriña ◽  
Albert Navarro

Abstract Background When dealing with recurrent events in observational studies it is common to include subjects who became at risk before follow-up. This phenomenon is known as left censoring, and simply ignoring these prior episodes can lead to biased and inefficient estimates. We aimed to propose a statistical method that performs well in this setting. Methods Our proposal was based on the use of models with specific baseline hazards. In this, the number of prior episodes were imputed when unknown and stratified according to whether the subject had been at risk of presenting the event before t = 0. A frailty term was also used. Two formulations were used for this “Specific Hazard Frailty Model Imputed” based on the “counting process” and “gap time.” Performance was then examined in different scenarios through a comprehensive simulation study. Results The proposed method performed well even when the percentage of subjects at risk before follow-up was very high. Biases were often below 10% and coverages were around 95%, being somewhat conservative. The gap time approach performed better with constant baseline hazards, whereas the counting process performed better with non-constant baseline hazards. Conclusions The use of common baseline methods is not advised when knowledge of prior episodes experienced by a participant is lacking. The approach in this study performed acceptably in most scenarios in which it was evaluated and should be considered an alternative in this context. It has been made freely available to interested researchers as R package miRecSurv.

2022 ◽  
Harutaka Takahashi ◽  
Takayoshi Kitaoka

With the rapid spread of COVID-19, there is an urgent need for a framework to accurately predict COVID-19 transmission. Recent epidemiological studies have found that a prominent feature of COVID-19 is its ability to be transmitted before symptoms occur, which is generally not the case for seasonal influenza and SARS. Several COVID-19 predictive epidemiological models have been proposed; however, they share a common drawback-they are unable to capture the unique asymptomatic nature of COVID-19 transmission. Here, we propose vector autoregression (VAR) as an epidemiological county-level prediction model that captures this unique aspect of COVID-19 transmission by introducing newly infected cases in other counties as lagged explanatory variables. Using the number of new COVID-19 cases in seven New York State counties, we predicted new COVID-19 cases in the counties over the next 4 weeks. We then compared our prediction results with those of 11 other state-of-the-art prediction models proposed by leading research institutes and academic groups. The results showed that VAR prediction is superior to other epidemiological prediction models in terms of the root mean square error of prediction. Thus, we strongly recommend the simple VAR model as a framework to accurately predict COVID-19 transmission.

Parul Vaid ◽  
Bhavuk Kapoor ◽  
Mayank Kapoor

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world TBI is called the ‘silent epidemic’ because problems resulting from TBI are often not immediately visible and TBI patients are not very vociferous. Epidemiological studies of TBI are essential to the targeted prevention and effective treatment of brain-injured patients. Epidemiology analysis of surgically managed traumatic brain injury patients was done. Mean age was 35.9 years. Males were more commonly (80%) involved than females (20%). In 57.5% of cases, falls were responsible for TBI and in 42.5% of cases, Road traffic accidents were responsible. Edh was the most common type of TBI in (50%). Chronic SDH occurred in 25% of cases. Acute SDH and Contusions were both seen in 13.75% of cases. Depressed fractures occurred in 6.25% of cases and ICH occurred in 1.25% of cases. Craniotomy was the most common (42%) surgical procedure performed, followed by burrhole drainage (22.5%). Decompressive craniectomy was done in 18.75% of cases and elevation of depressed fracture was performed in 6.25% of cases. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. People of all ages are affected by it. Males are more commonly involved as compared to females. Timely hospitalisation and surgical management whenever indicated improves the survival.

Ya-Hui Chang ◽  
Ya-Yun Cheng ◽  
Wen-Hsuan Hou ◽  
Yu-Wen Chien ◽  
Chiung-Hsin Chang ◽  

The aim of the study was to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the association between mortality risk and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. We used relevant MeSH terms to identify epidemiological studies of mortality risk in relation to MVCs from PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used for quality assessment. For comparison of mortality from MVCs between pregnant and nonpregnant women, the pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. The eight studies selected met all inclusion criteria. These studies included 14,120 injured victims who were pregnant at the time of the incident and 207,935 victims who were not pregnant. Compared with nonpregnant women, pregnant women had a moderate but insignificant decrease in mortality risk (pooled OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.38–1.22, I2 = 88.71%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the pooled OR significantly increased at 1.64 (95% CI = 1.16–2.33, I2 < 0.01%) for two studies with a similar difference in the mean injury severity score (ISS) between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Future studies should further explore the risk factors associated with MVCs in pregnant women to reduce maternal mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Volkan Zeybek ◽  
Hasan Yetiş ◽  
Abdülkadir İzci ◽  
Kemalettin Acar

Abstract Background Although suicide rates and methods used may vary according to society, gender, and age there are epidemiological studies reporting that suicide rates increase with advanced age in all societies, particularly accelerating after the age of 65 years. This study aimed to investigate the demographic data and suicide characteristics—such as the location and method, among others—of the elderly suicide deaths among forensic deaths between 2011 and 2020 in Denizli, Turkey. Results It was determined that elderly suicides constituted 13.8% of all suicides and increased gradually over the years during the 10-year period. The vast majority of cases were male (82%). It has been observed that hanging is the most frequently used method. It is also noteworthy that although firearm suicide among men was the second most common method, women do not choose this method at all. The majority of elderly suicides (88.5%) in Denizli occurred in the home and its annexes. Conclusions Suicide prevention programmes should promote the elderly to benefit widely from social and health services. Therefore, there is a need to include widespread home care services and firearms regulations in prevention programmes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-48
Hidayatullah Hidayatullah ◽  
Shobihatus Syifak ◽  
Choirotussanijjah Choirotussanijjah

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage or ICH or hemorrhagic stroke is caused by bleeding within brain parenchyma. Riskesdas reported that stroke patients in Indonesia experienced an increase from 7 permil in 2013 to 10.9 permil in 2018. Mortality rate for ICH is estimated 40% in 1 month and 54% in 1 year. Rumah sakit Islam Jemursari (RSI) is the only type B hospital in Wonocolo sub-district, Surabaya city. This study aimed to analyze the pattern of incidents and variations of ICH at RSI Jemursari Surabaya.Method: This was a descriptive observational study. Medical record data is collected  from 2017-2019. The data were obtained from medical records section of total number of ICH, gender, age and outcome of patients. Furthermore, data is analyzed and illustrated through a bar chart and the frequency of mortality is calculated.Results: Total ICH patients at Jemursari Hospital were 310 with 192 male patients and 118 female patients over 3 years. Meanwhile, the most groups experienced ICH were 45-64 years, followed by +65 age group. This is consistent with several epidemiological studies related to ICH, where the incidence of ICH increases with increasing age. The mortality rate for ICH patients, in the 2017-2019 periode, was around 23-30%.Conclusion: It can be concluded that male more susceptible to ICH than female subjects. Meanwhile, the mortality rate for ICH patients ranged from 23-30% in the 2017-2019 period. It is necessary to carry out further evaluation related to other data from the patient. So it could describe incidence rate as well as an overview of the ICH profile at RSI Jemursari.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 796
Julia Sasse ◽  
Johannes Darms ◽  
Juliane Fluck

For all research data collected, data descriptions and information about the corresponding variables are essential for data analysis and reuse. To enable cross-study comparisons and analyses, semantic interoperability of metadata is one of the most important requirements. In the area of clinical and epidemiological studies, data collection instruments such as case report forms (CRFs), data dictionaries and questionnaires are critical for metadata collection. Even though data collection instruments are often created in a digital form, they are mostly not machine readable; i.e., they are not semantically coded. As a result, the comparison between data collection instruments is complex. The German project NFDI4Health is dedicated to the development of national research data infrastructure for personal health data, and as such searches for ways to enhance semantic interoperability. Retrospective integration of semantic codes into study metadata is important, as ongoing or completed studies contain valuable information. However, this is labor intensive and should be eased by software. To understand the market and find out what techniques and technologies support retrospective semantic annotation/enrichment of metadata, we conducted a literature review. In NFDI4Health, we identified basic requirements for semantic metadata annotation software in the biomedical field and in the context of the FAIR principles. Ten relevant software systems were summarized and aligned with those requirements. We concluded that despite active research on semantic annotation systems, no system meets all requirements. Consequently, further research and software development in this area is needed, as interoperability of data dictionaries, questionnaires and data collection tools is key to reusing and combining results from independent research studies.

Grace Kuiper ◽  
Bonnie N. Young ◽  
Sherry WeMott ◽  
Grant Erlandson ◽  
Nayamin Martinez ◽  

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. Pesticide use data are available for California from the Pesticide Use Report (PUR), but household- and individual-level exposure factors have not been fully characterized to support its refinement as an exposure assessment tool. Unique exposure pathways, such as proximity to agricultural operations and direct occupational contact, further complicate pesticide exposure assessment among agricultural communities. We sought to identify influencing factors of pesticide exposure to support future exposure assessment and epidemiological studies. Household dust samples were collected from 28 homes in four California agricultural communities during January and June 2019 and were analyzed for the presence of OPs. Factors influencing household OPs were identified by a data-driven model via best subsets regression. Key factors that impacted dust OP levels included household cooling strategies, secondary occupational exposure to pesticides, and geographic location by community. Although PUR data demonstrate seasonal trends in pesticide application, this study did not identify season as an important factor, suggesting OP persistence in the home. These results will help refine pesticide exposure assessment for future studies and highlight important gaps in the literature, such as our understanding of pesticide degradation in an indoor environment.

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