BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2474, 1471-2474
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chaturong Pornrattanamaneewong ◽  
Akraporn Sitthitheerarut ◽  
Pakpoom Ruangsomboon ◽  
Keerati Chareancholvanich ◽  
Rapeepat Narkbunnam

Abstract Background Periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) is a serious complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the risk factors of PFF in the early postoperative setting are not well documented. This study determines the risk factors of early PFF after primary TKA. Methods This study recruited 24 patients who had early PFF within postoperative 3 months and 96 control patients. Demographic data (age, gender, weight, height, body mass index, Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, diagnosis, operated side, underlying diseases and history of steroid usage intraoperative outcomes), intraoperative outcomes (operative time, surgical approach, type and brand of the prosthesis), and radiographic outcomes (distal femoral width; DFW, prosthesis-distal femoral width ratio; PDFW ratio, anatomical lateral distal femoral angle; LDFA, the change of LDFA, femoral component flexion angle; FCFA and anterior femoral notching; AFN) were recorded and compared between groups. Details of PFF, including fracture pattern, preoperative deformity, and time to PFF were also documented. Results In univariate analysis, the PFF group had significantly older, right side injury, rheumatoid, dyslipidemia, Parkinson patients than the control group (p < 0.05). No cruciate-retaining design was used in PFF group (p = 0.004). Differences between the prosthetic brand used were found in this study (p = 0.049). For radiographic outcomes, PFF group had significantly lower DFW but higher PDFW ratio and postoperative LDFA than the control group (p < 0.05). While the change of LDFA, FCFA and AFN were similar between groups. The fracture patterns were medial condylar (45.8%), lateral condylar (25.0%) and supracondylar fracture (29.2%). The mean overall time to PFF was 37.2 ± 20.6 days (range 8–87 days). Preoperative deformity was significantly different among the three patterns (p < 0.05). When performed multivariate analysis using the logistic regression model, age was only an independent risk factor for early PFF. The cut-off point of age was > = 75 years, with a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 78.1%. Conclusion This study determined that age was the independent risk factors for early PFF. However, further well-controlled studies with a larger sample size were needed to address this issue.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Liqin Zheng ◽  
Xinmin Chen ◽  
Yongze Zheng ◽  
Xingpeng He ◽  
Jingxiong Wu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background There are concerns regarding initial stability and cutout effect in proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) treating intertrochanteric fractures. No study have used finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics. This study aimed to compare the cutout effect, stress and displacement between stable (AO31-A1.3) and unstable (AO31-A2.2) intertrochanteric fractures treated by cement augmented PFNA. Methods Four femoral finite element models (FEMs) were constructed and tested under the maximum loading during walking. Non-augmented and augmented PFNA in two different intertrochanteric fractures were respectively simulated, assuming Tip Apex Distance (TAD) < 25 mm within each FEM. The cutout effect, stress and displacement between femur and PFNA were compared in each condition. Results Cutout effect was observed in both non-augmented femoral head and was more apparently in unstable intertrochanteric fracture model. After reinforced by bone cement, no cutout effect occurred in two models. Stress concentration were observed on medial part of intertrochanteric region and the proximal part of helical blade before augmented while were observed on femoral shaft and the conjunction between blade and nail after augmented in both FEMs. Displacement mainly appeared on femoral head and the helical blade tip before augmented while distributed moderately on intertrochanteric region and the upper part of nail after augmented in both FEMs. The maximum stress and displacement value of femur decreased both in stable and unstable model after augmented but was more significantly in the unstable one. The maximum stress and displacement value of PFNA increased both in stable and unstable model after augmented but was more significantly in the unstable one. Conclusion Our FEA study indicated that the cement augmentation of the PFNA biomechanically enhances the cutout resistance in intertrochanteric fracture, this procedure is especially efficient for the unstable intertrochanteric fracture.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ying Jiang ◽  
Yi Shen ◽  
Liyan Ding ◽  
Shengli Xia ◽  
Liying Jiang

Abstract Backgrounds As osteoarthritis (OA) disease-modifying therapies are not available, novel therapeutic targets need to be discovered and prioritized. Here, we aim to identify miRNA signatures in patients to fully elucidate regulatory mechanism of OA pathogenesis and advance in basic understanding of the genetic etiology of OA. Methods Six participants (3 OA and 3 controls) were recruited and serum samples were assayed through RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). And, RNA-seq dataset was analysed to identify genes, pathways and regulatory networks dysregulated in OA. The overlapped differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) were further screened in combination with the microarray dataset GSE143514. The expression levels of candidate miRNAs were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) based on the GEO dataset (GSE114007). Results Serum samples were sequenced interrogating 382 miRNAs. After screening of independent samples and GEO database, the two comparison datasets shared 19 overlapped candidate micRNAs. Of these, 9 up-regulated DEMs and 10 down-regulated DEMs were detected, respectively. There were 236 target genes for up-regulated DEMs and 400 target genes for those down-regulated DEMs. For up-regulated DEMs, the top 10 hub genes were KRAS, NRAS, CDC42, GDNF, SOS1, PIK3R3, GSK3B, IRS2, GNG12, and PRKCA; for down-regulated DEMs, the top 10 hub genes were NR3C1, PPARGC1A, SUMO1, MEF2C, FOXO3, PPP1CB, MAP2K1, RARA, RHOC, CDC23, and CREB3L2. Mir-584-5p-KRAS, mir-183-5p-NRAS, mir-4435-PIK3R3, and mir-4435-SOS1 were identified as four potential regulatory pathways by integrated analysis. Conclusions We have integrated differential expression data to reveal putative genes and detected four potential miRNA-target gene pathways through bioinformatics analysis that represent new mediators of abnormal gene expression and promising therapeutic targets in OA.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Donald J. Hunter ◽  
Darren A. Rivett ◽  
Sharmaine McKiernan ◽  
Suzanne J. Snodgrass

Abstract Background Shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) is the most common form of shoulder pain. Conservative and surgical treatments for SIS are often not effective. One such surgical intervention is subacromial decompression, aimed at widening the subacromial space (SAS). A better understanding of the changes in the SAS may help explain the relative ineffectiveness of current interventions. Objective: To measure the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and supraspinatus tendon thickness (STT) in people with SIS using a case control study. Methods The AHD and STT of 39 participants with SIS ≥3 months and 39 age, gender and dominant arm matched controls were measured using ultrasound imaging. Between-group differences for AHD and STT were compared using t-tests. A linear regression was used to determine if there was a relationship between AHD and STT measures, with group as a covariate. Results Compared to controls (mean age 55.7 years, SD 10.6), individuals with SIS (mean age 57.1 years, SD 11.1) had a significantly larger AHD (mean difference 2.14 mm, 95% CI 1.21, 3.07, p < 0.001) and STT (mean difference 1.25 mm, 95% CI 0.60, 1.90, p < 0.001). The linear regression model indicated an association between AHD and STT (β = 0.59, 95% CI 0.29, 0.89, p < 0.01, R2 = 0.35, n = 78), suggesting that as STT increases in size, so does the AHD. Conclusion Individuals with SIS had a larger AHD and greater STT than controls. These results suggest the SAS is already wider in people with SIS and that the symptoms associated with SIS may be more related to an increased STT than a smaller SAS.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexander Vernon Bates ◽  
Alison H. McGregor ◽  
Caroline M. Alexander

Abstract Background Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is a rare Heritable Disorder of Connective tissue characterised by generalised joint laxity and chronic widespread pain. Joint Hypermobility Syndrome has a large impact on patients’ day to day activities, and many complain of symptoms when standing for prolonged periods. This study investigates whether people with JHS exhibit the same behaviours to deal with the effects of prolonged standing as people with equal hypermobility and no pain, and people with normal flexibility and no pain. Methods Twenty three people with JHS, 22 people with Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), and 22 people with normal flexibility (NF) were asked to stand for a maximum of 15 min across two force-plates. Fidgets were counted and quantified using a cumulative sum algorithm and sway parameters of the quiet standing periods between fidgets were calculated. Results Average standing time for participants with JHS was 7.35 min and none stood for the full 15 min. All participants with GJH and NF completed 15 min of standing. There were no differences in fidgeting behaviour between any groups. There was a difference in anteroposterior sway (p = .029) during the quiet standing periods. Conclusion There is no evidence to suggest people with JHS exhibit different fidgeting behaviour. Increased anteroposterior-sway may suggest a muscle weakness and strengthening muscles around the ankle may reduce postural sway and potentially improve the ability to stand for prolonged periods.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhong-Yan Li ◽  
Yu-Chih Lin ◽  
Chih-Hsiang Chang ◽  
Szu-Yuan Chen ◽  
Tung-Wu Lu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) trends are critical for monitoring patients’ treatment response following a two-stage exchange arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip. However, CRP trends are poorly described in the literature. The primary aim of this study was to identify the relationships between PJI treatment outcomes and our proposed CRP trend definitions, parameters, and microbiological data. The secondary aim was to investigate CRP trends after the occurrence of spacer-related complications. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 74 patients treated with a two-stage exchange protocol for PJI in a tertiary referral joint center between 2014 and 2016. Patients with factors that may affect CRP levels (inflammatory arthritis, concomitant infections, liver and kidney diseases, and intensive care admissions) were excluded. CRP trends were categorized into five types and PJI treatment outcome was defined as “success” or “failure” according to the Delphi criteria. Results Treatment was successful in 67 patients and failed in 7 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that type 5 CRP, defined as serum CRP fluctuation without normalization after first stage surgery (odds ratio [OR]: 17.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–129.7; p = 0.005), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; OR: 14.5; 95% CI: 1.6–131.7; p = 0.018) were associated with treatment failure. Spacer-related complications occurred in 18 patients. Of these, 12 had elevated CRP levels at later follow-up, while six had no elevation in CRP levels. Conclusions We found that MRSA infection and type 5 CRP were associated with PJI treatment failure.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Laurent Audigé ◽  
Stig Brorson ◽  
Holger Durchholz ◽  
Simon Lambert ◽  
Fabrizio Moro ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Proximal humerus fracture (PHF) complications, whether following surgery or nonoperative management, require standardization of definitions and documentation for consistent reporting. We aimed to define an international consensus core event set (CES) of clinically-relevant unfavorable events of PHF to be documented in clinical routine practice and research. Methods A Delphi exercise was implemented with an international panel of experienced shoulder trauma surgeons selected by survey invitation of AO Trauma members. An organized list of PHF events after nonoperative or operative management was developed and reviewed by panel members using on-line surveys. The proposed core set was revised regarding event groups along with definitions, specifications and timing of occurrence. Consensus was reached with at least a two-third agreement. Results The PHF consensus panel was composed of 231 clinicians worldwide who responded to at least one of two completed surveys. There was 93% final agreement about three intraoperative local event groups (device, osteochondral, soft tissue). Postoperative or nonoperative event terms and definitions organized into eight groups (device, osteochondral, shoulder instability, fracture-related infection, peripheral neurological, vascular, superficial soft tissue, deep soft tissue) were approved with 96 to 98% agreement. The time period for documentation ranged from 30 days to 24 months after PHF treatment depending on the event group and specification. The resulting consensus was presented on a paper-based PHF CES documentation form. Conclusions International consensus was achieved on a core set of local unfavorable events of PHF to foster standardization of complication reporting in clinical research and register documentation. Trial registration Not applicable.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenyuan Wei ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Peichun Hsu ◽  
Shang Guo ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Heterotopic ossification (HO) can limit joint activity, causes ankylosis and impairs the function and rehabilitation of patients. Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HO, and high expression of SMAD7(Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 7) in endothelial cells can effectively reverse the TGF-β1 mediated EndMT. This article studied an appropriately engineered exosome with high biocompatibility and good targeting property to administrate SMAD7 gene therapy to inhibit the EndMT. Methods Exosomes from mouse aortic endothelial cells were cultured and harvested. DSPE-PEG and antibody CD34 were combined to exosomes to synthesize the endothelial cell targeting exosome vector (Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34). The biocompatibility, stability, targeting and cell internalization of exosome vector were tested, then the Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34 was loaded with Smad7 plasmid and administrated to MAECs to examine its therapeutic effect on EndMT of MAEC mediated by TGF-β1. Results The Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34 has no impact on MAEC cell viability at high concentration, and exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34 could be stably stored at 4°C and 37°C for at least 8 days. Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34 has better targeting property to MAEC cells and can enter into the cells more effectively. The Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34-Smad7 could significantly increase the level of SMAD7, decrease the expression of TGF-β1, and effectively reverse the EndMT of MAEC mediated by TGF- β1 in MAEC cells. Conclusions The synthesized Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34-Smad7 has good biological properties and can effectively reverse the EndMT of MAEC mediated by TGF-β1. Thus, Exosome-DSPE-PEG-AbCD34-Smad7 may has the potential for the prevention and treatment of HO.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dominic T. Mathis ◽  
Joshua Schmidli ◽  
Michael T. Hirschmann ◽  
Felix Amsler ◽  
Johann Henckel ◽  
...  

Abstract Background With the Persona® knee system a new polyethylene formulation incorporating vitamin-E which aims to reduce oxidation and maintain wear resistance was introduced. Although in-vitro studies have demonstrated positive effects of the vitamin-E antioxidants on UHMWPE, no retrieval study has looked at polyethylene damage of this system yet. It was the aim to investigate the in-vivo performance of this new design, by comparing it with its predecessor in retrieval analysis. Methods 15 NexGen® and 8 Persona® fixed-bearing implants from the same manufacturer (Zimmer Biomet) were retrieved from two knee revision centres. For retrieval analysis, a macroscopic analysis of polyethylene using a peer-reviewed damage grading method was used (Hood-score). The roughness of all articulating metal components was measured using a contact profilometer. The reason(s) for TKA revision were recorded. Statistical analyses (t-test) were performed to investigate differences between the two designs. Results The mean Hood score for Persona® inserts was 109.3 and for NexGen® 115.1 without significant differences between the two designs. Results from the profilometer revealed that Persona® and NexGen® femoral implants showed an identical mean surface roughness of 0.14 μm. The Persona® tibial tray showed a significantly smoother surface (0.06 μm) compared to the NexGen® (0.2 μm; p < 0.001). Both Hood score and surface roughness were influenced by the reasons for revision (p < 0.01). Conclusions The bonding of the antioxidant vitamin-E to the PE chain used in the novel Persona® knee system does not reduce in-vivo surface damage compared to highly crosslinked PE without supplemented vitamin-E used in its predecessor knee system NexGen®. However, the Persona® titanium alloy tibial tray showed a significantly smoother surface in comparison to the NexGen® titanium alloy tibial tray. This study provides first retrieval findings of a novel TKA design and may help to understand how the new Persona® anatomic knee system performs in vivo.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Junyu Li ◽  
Kaige Deng ◽  
Yanchao Tang ◽  
Zexi Yang ◽  
Xiaoguang Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study aims to analyze postoperative changes of cervical sagittal curvature and to identify independent risk factors for cervical kyphosis in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Methods A total of 124 AIS patients who received all-pedicle-screw instrumentation were enrolled. All patients were followed up for at least 2 years. The following parameters were measured preoperatively, immediately after the operation, and at the last follow-up: pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), global thoracic kyphosis (GTK), proximal thoracic kyphosis (PrTK), T1-slope, cervical lordosis (CL), McGregor slope (McGS), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C2–7 SVA (cSVA), and main thoracic angle (MTA). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate postoperative alterations of and correlations between the parameters and to identify risk factors for cervical kyphosis. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results After the operation, PrTK and T1-slope significantly increased (3.01 ± 11.46, 3.8 ± 10.76, respectively), cervical lordosis improved with an insignificant increase (− 2.11 ± 13.47, P = 0.154), and MTA, SS, and LL decreased significantly (− 33.68 ± 15.35, − 2.98 ± 8.41, 2.82 ± 9.92, respectively). Intergroup comparison and logistic regression revealed that preoperative CK > 2.35° and immediate postoperative GTK < 27.15° were independent risk factors for final cervical kyphosis, and △T1-slope < 4.8° for a kyphotic trend. Conclusions Postoperative restoration of thoracic kyphosis, especially proximal thoracic kyphosis, and T1-slope play a central role in cervical sagittal compensation. Preoperative CK, postoperative small GTK, and insufficient △T1-slope are all independent risk factors for cervical decompensation.


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