Urban Spaces
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Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Author(s):  
Guolei Zhou ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Chenggu Li ◽  
Yanjun Liu

As populations continue to be concentrated in cities, the world will become entirely urbanized, and urban space is undergoing a drastic evolution. Understanding the spatial pattern of conversion and expansion of functional urban land, in the context of rapid urbanization, helps us to grasp the trajectories of urban spatial evolution in greater depth from a theoretical and practical level. Using the ESRI ArcGIS 9.3 software platform, methods, such as overlay analysis, transition matrix, and kernel density estimation, were used in order to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of different types of functional urban land conversion and expansion in the central city of Changchun. The results show that different types of functional urban land were often expanded and replaced, and the urban spatial structure was constantly evolving. The conversion and expansion of functional urban land show similar characteristics to concentric zone and sector modes and show dynamic changes in different concentric circles and directions at different periods. Our method can accurately identify the different types of functional urban land, and also explore the evolutionary trajectory of urban spatial structure. This study will help to coordinate the development of different functional urban spaces and to optimize the urban spatial structure in the future.


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 72-81
Author(s):  
Juan Usubillaga

Cities today face a context in which traditional politics and policies struggle to cope with increasing urbanisation rates and growing inequalities. Meanwhile, social movements and political activists are rising up and inhabiting urban spaces as sites of contestation. However, through their practices, urban activists do more than just occupy spaces; they are fundamental drivers of urban transformation as they constantly face—and contest—spatial manifestations of power. This article aims to contribute to ongoing discussions on the role of activism in the field of urban design, by engaging with two concepts coming from the Global South: <em>insurgency</em> and <em>autonomy</em>. Through a historical account of the building of the Potosí-Jerusalén neighbourhood in Bogotá in the 1980s, it illustrates how both concepts can provide new insight into urban change by activism. On the one hand, the concept of insurgency helps unpack a mode of bottom-up action that inaugurates political spaces of contestation with the state; autonomy, on the other hand, helps reveal the complex nature of political action and the visions of urban transformation it entails. Although they were developed at the margins of conventional design theory and practice, both concepts are instrumental in advancing our understanding of how cities are shaped by activist practices. Thus, this article is part of a broader effort to (re)locate political activism in discussions about urban transformation, and rethink activism as a form of urban design practice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gaana Jayagopalan ◽  
Sweta Mukherjee

AbstractThis paper qualitatively analyses the implication of urban sensorium as a pedagogic mode in the teaching of Urban Studies. Underpinned by the frames of smart learning environments, the paper reiterates experiencing urban ontologies as spatial learning environments. By drawing from a range of transdisciplinary and experiential modes of learning, this paper maps how an undergraduate course on Bangalore city in India served learners to critically engage with and experience spatial urban ontologies both digitally, and in real-world experiences of learning, furthering learner autonomy and reflection. The methodological prisms of this paper are autoethnography and critical reflection. It is organised around enabling learners recognize the experiential, embodied urban spaces through the urban sensorium via real-life engagements with urban spaces, and creation of digital portfolios that map this learning. Findings from the learners’ knowledge of sensory learning, the city’s intersectional aspects, and the student’s embodied and emplaced self in built environments and digital spaces are analysed via cognitive and affective-reflection levels; the course instructor's reflection is analysed via a process-reflection level. These reflections hold implications for the pedagogy of urban studies in undergraduate classrooms by foregrounding spatiality and urban sensorium as significant critical and affective pedagogic tools. The paper has also accommodated critical engagement with an external faculty member as a co-author, in order to manage any bias or researcher subjectivity in the design.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yasaman Gholami ◽  
Seyed Hassan Taghvaei ◽  
Saeid Norouzian-Maleki ◽  
Rouhollah Mansouri Sepehr

PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantitatively evaluate the role of landscape values and factors in urban parks experimentally based on neuroscience.Design/methodology/approachIn the first step, ten major parks were selected out of 59 regional and trans-regional parks in Tehran for field study analysis. Next, considering the diversity and abundance of landscape elements in the selected parks, Mellat Park was chosen for the case study.FindingsThe fixation duration of the factors has an average correlation coefficient of 0.5865, −0.5035 and −0.5125 for the overall sketch map, quality and accuracy, respectively. The results indicated that the “quality of people's cognitive maps” has a direct relation to fixation duration on “human-made factors” and an inverse relation to fixation duration on “natural factors” and “human activities and behavioral factors” in the park.Practical implicationsThe results can pave the way for further research in the interdisciplinary fields of landscape architecture and neuroscience.Originality/valueLegibility is a superior quality of urban spaces that profoundly affect how people perceive and behave.


Author(s):  
Yingyi Zhang ◽  
Ge Chen ◽  
Yue He ◽  
Xinyue Jiang ◽  
Caiying Xue

The world’s population is aging and becoming more urbanized. Public space in urban areas is vital for improving the health of the elderly by stimulating social interaction. Many urban design projects are advertised as age-friendly but ignore the real needs of the elderly, especially elderly women, for social interaction in urban public spaces. Insufficient attention is paid to the physical and psychological characteristics of elderly women when shaping public space. This analysis addresses the question: What are the qualities of urban spaces which facilitate health-improving social interaction for elderly women? Methods include a case study in Beijing, field investigation, mapping, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. The survey was carried out in April 2021, and concerned 240 women aged 55–75 years. Results indicate that the social interactions of older women relate to both their physical and psychological situations. Public spaces can positively impact the psychological well-being and social participation of elderly women. Conclusions include insights regarding the relationship between social interaction and well-being among elderly women, as well as proposing a series of principles for shaping public spaces for an age-friendly urban environment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 720
Author(s):  
Danijela Domljan ◽  
Luka Janković

The paper presents the results of the first phase of the student project CROSTAND2, whose main goal is to revitalize the traditional construction techniques of vernacular architecture in the Republic of Croatia by developing modern sustainable prefabricated modular wooden buildings/public booths in accordance with users’ needs and habits. To incorporate conceptual design, the literature on Croatian construction and wood protection, prefabricated modular construction, and public urban spaces was analyzed and field research was conducted. Photo documentation was also collected in the village of Donja Kupčina, Zagreb County, Croatia. An online survey questionnaire on socializing habits in public spaces, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, additionally analyzed new requirements for user-centered design. The obtained results, as well as results from previous project research, were used as a basis and inspiration for the design of a conceptual modular building inspired by traditional wooden joints, modular construction, and the emerging needs of users to socialize safely in a healthy environment. Conceptual solutions for a sustainable modular prefabricated wooden building for public use, intended for public urban and rural areas, have been proposed. Such constructions would ensure the sustainability of enjoying the natural environment for personal, tourist, and commercial purposes with the perpetuation of Croatian heritage building traditions.


2022 ◽  
pp. 147807712110700
Author(s):  
Marianna Charitonidou

The article examines the impact of the virtual public sphere on how urban spaces are experienced and conceived in our data-driven society. It places particular emphasis on urban scale digital twins, which are virtual replicas of cities that are used to simulate environments and develop scenarios in response to policy problems. The article also investigates the shift from the technical to the socio-technical perspective within the field of smart cities. Despite the aspirations of urban scale digital twins to enhance the participation of citizens in the decision-making processes relayed to urban planning strategies, the fact that they are based on a limited set of variables and processes makes them problematic. The article aims to shed light on the tension between the real and the ideal at stake during this process of abstracting sets of variables and processes in the case of urban scale digital twins.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elizabeth Davis ◽  
Marielle Castaneda ◽  
Brian Crudge ◽  
Thona Lim ◽  
Vichet Roth ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated efforts to engage critically with forest-adjacent, rural, communities who rely on wildlife. In this study, we interviewed 109 hunters of wildlife across Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos regarding the effect the COVID-19 pandemic has had on them individually, as well as more generally within their communities. We found that negative economic impacts such as loss of employment and constrained finances due to rising prices was an especially prevalent theme due to city-wide lockdowns, factory closures, and border closures. In Vietnam, hunting was stated to have increased as young men were forced to return to their villages to work; however, trade in wildlife was believed to have decreased due to the inability of middlemen traders to easily leave urban spaces or cross-country lines. This theme of barriers to trade was found in Cambodia and Laos as well. Our results show the importance of establishing sustainable, non-wildlife-dependent livelihoods within rural communities, to mitigate hunting and mitigate the potential for emerging infectious disease transmission. Overall, our results show the value in engaging with hunters to understand locally and spatially-specific trends, and provide direction for future avenues of research.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 146
Author(s):  
Esther Sánchez-Almodóvar ◽  
Jorge Olcina-Cantos ◽  
Javier Martí-Talavera

The management of runoff during torrential rainfall events is a significant problem in urban areas of southeast Spain. The increase in soil sealing and the occupation of areas prone to flooding have aggravated this problem. Due to this situation, municipal administrations, in collaboration with the concession holder for the supply of water and sewage services, Hidraqua Gestión Integral de Aguas de Levante SA, are committed a more efficient management of non-conventional water resources. An example of this can be found in the municipalities of Rojales, Daya Nueva, and San Fulgencio. These towns are located in the Bajo Segura region of the province of Alicante, where various initiatives have been implemented that break away from the traditional paradigm of rigid infrastructures. These initiatives include green spaces or areas, and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) or nature-based solutions (NBS). This article presents various case studies. Firstly, in the town of Rojales, where several actions are being undertaken to improve the management of wastewater and rainwater and provide a solution to unauthorised dumping, as well as encouraging the use of reclaimed water with the creation of a recreational green area, El Recorral Park. Secondly, in the case of Daya Nueva, the Europa Park constitutes a recreational green area, Europa Park, facilitates runoff drainage by SUDS and NBS. Finally, the creation of a floodable pond in the municipality of San Fulgencio encourages the use of wastewater, thus avoiding the discharge of this non-conventional water resource into the sea. In addition, the pond facilitates the appropriate management of runoff water. The working method in this article has been twofold: firstly, bibliographical references have been consulted from other national and international areas; and secondly, the technical projects in the case studies have been analysed in detail. Several field trips have been made to the selected municipalities, accompanied by the technical personnel in charge of the execution of the projects, to examine the measures adopted. The results show that the implementation of these systems contributes to adapting to climate change and creates more resilient urban spaces.


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