spectroscopic binaries
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Dennis Jack ◽  
Missael Alejandro Hernández Huerta ◽  
Faiber Danilo Rosas‐Portilla ◽  
Klaus‐Peter Schröder

2021 ◽  
Vol 923 (2) ◽  
pp. 226
Fan Yang ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Richard J. Long ◽  
You-Jun Lu ◽  
Su-Su Shan ◽  

Abstract Single-line spectroscopic binaries have recently contributed to stellar-mass black hole discovery, independently of the X-ray transient method. We report the identification of a single-line binary system, LTD064402+245919, with an orbital period of 14.50 days. The observed component is a subgiant with a mass of 2.77 ± 0.68 M ⊙, radius 15.5 ± 2.5 R ⊙, effective temperature T eff 4500 ± 200 K, and surface gravity log g 2.5 ± 0.25 dex. The discovery makes use of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope time-domain and Zwicky Transient Facility survey. Our general-purpose software pipeline applies a Lomb–Scargle periodogram to determine the orbital period and uses machine learning to classify the variable type from the folded light curves. We apply a combined model to estimate the orbital parameters from both the light and radial velocity curves, taking constraints on the primary star mass, mass function, and detection limit of secondary luminosity into consideration. We obtain a radial velocity semiamplitude of 44.6 ± 1.5 km s−1, mass ratio of 0.73 ± 0.07, and an undetected component mass of 2.02 ± 0.49 M ⊙ when the type of the undetected component is not set. We conclude that the inclination is not well constrained, and that the secondary mass is larger than 1 M ⊙ when the undetected component is modeled as a compact object. According to our investigations using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation, increasing the spectra signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 3 would enable the secondary light to be distinguished (if present). The algorithm and software in this work are able to serve as general-purpose tools for the identification of compact objects quiescent in X-rays.

2021 ◽  
Vol 162 (6) ◽  
pp. 285
Isabel Lipartito ◽  
John I. Bailey III ◽  
Timothy D. Brandt ◽  
Benjamin A. Mazin ◽  
Mario Mateo ◽  

Abstract We present orbits for 24 binaries in the field of open cluster NGC 2516 (∼150 Myr) and 13 binaries in the field of open cluster NGC 2422 (∼130 Myr) using results from a multiyear radial-velocity (RV) survey of the cluster cores. Six of these systems are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We fit these RV variable systems with orvara, a MCMC-based fitting program that models Keplerian orbits. We use precise stellar parallaxes and proper motions from Gaia EDR3 to determine cluster membership. We impose a barycentric RV prior on all cluster members; this significantly improves our orbital constraints. Two of our systems have periods between five and 15 days, the critical window in which tides efficiently damp orbital eccentricity. These binaries should be included in future analyses of circularization across similarly-aged clusters. We also find a relatively flat distribution of binary mass ratios, consistent with previous work. With the inclusion of TESS light curves for all available targets, we identity target 378–036252 as a new eclipsing binary. We also identify a field star whose secondary has a mass in the brown dwarf range, as well as two cluster members whose RVs suggest the presence of an additional companion. Our orbital fits will help constrain the binary fraction and binary properties across stellar age and across stellar environment.

Yanjun Guo ◽  
Jiao Li ◽  
Jianping Xiong ◽  
Jiangdan Li ◽  
Luqian Wang ◽  

Abstract Massive binaries play significant roles in many fields. Identification of massive stars, particularly massive binaries, is of great importance. In this paper, by adopting the technique of measuring the equivalent widths of several spectral lines, we identified 9,382 early-type stars from LAMOST medium-resolution survey and divided the sample into four groups, T1 ($\sim$O-B4), T2 ($\sim$B5), T3 ($\sim$B7), and T4 ($\sim$B8-A). The relative radial velocities $RV_{\rm rel}$ were calculated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The stars with significant changes of $RV_{\rm rel}$ and at least larger than 15.57km s$^{-1}$ were identified as spectroscopic binaries. We found that the observed spectroscopic binary fractions for the four groups are $24.6\%\pm0.5\%$, $20.8\%\pm0.6\%$, $13.7\%\pm0.3\%$, and $7.4\%\pm0.3\%$, respectively. Assuming that orbital period ($P$) and mass ratio ($q$) have intrinsic distributions as $f(P) \propto P^\pi$ (1\textless$P$\textless1000 days) and $f(q) \propto q^\kappa$ (0.1\textless$q$\textless1), respectively, we conducted a series of Monte-Carlo simulations to correct observational biases for estimating the intrinsic multiplicity properties. The results show that the intrinsic binary fractions for the four groups are 68$\%\pm8\%$, 52$\%\pm3\%$, 44$\%\pm6\%$, and 44$\%\pm6\%$, respectively. The best estimated values for $\pi$ are -1$\pm0.1$, -1.1$\pm0.05$, -1.1$\pm0.1$, and -0.6$\pm0.05$, respectively. The $\kappa$ cannot be constrained for groups T1 and T2 and is -2.4$\pm0.3$ for group T3 and -1.6$\pm0.3$ for group T4. We confirmed the relationship of a decreasing trend in binary fractions towards late-type stars. No correlation between the spectral type and the orbital period distribution has been found yet, possibly due to the limitation of observational cadence.

2021 ◽  
Vol 162 (5) ◽  
pp. 184
Marina Kounkel ◽  
Kevin R. Covey ◽  
Keivan G. Stassun ◽  
Adrian M. Price-Whelan ◽  
Jon Holtzman ◽  

Noriyuki Katoh ◽  
Yoichi Itoh ◽  
Bun’ei Sato

ABSTRACT This study focuses on periodic variations of radial velocities (RVs) after removing the orbital motion of 33 spectroscopic binaries. The RVs were monitored from 2003 to 2012 and published in Katoh et al. (2013, AJ, 145, 41). Their RV precision was determined to be ∼10 m s−1 utilizing an I2 cell. We investigated the periodic variation using a generalzied Lomb–Scargle algorithm and found periodic variations in the residual velocities of seven binary systems. The residual-velocity variations are mostly generated by stellar activity rather than the orbital motion of a possible companion. For eight binaries, we found significant evidence of a second signal, with velocity dispersions greater than three times the RV uncertainty. We find these residual-velocity variations inconsistent with a Doppler signal induced by the orbital motion of an unknown component. For the remaining 18 binaries, we did not detect significant variations of residual-velocity.

2020 ◽  
Vol 645 ◽  
pp. A30
S. Zúñiga-Fernández ◽  
A. Bayo ◽  
P. Elliott ◽  
C. Zamora ◽  
G. Corvalán ◽  

Context. Nearby young associations offer one of the best opportunities for a detailed study of the properties of young stellar and substellar objects thanks to their proximity (<200 pc) and age (∼5−150 Myr). Previous works have identified spectroscopic (<5 au) binaries, close (5−1000 au) visual binaries, and wide or extremely wide (1000−100 000 au) binaries in the young associations. In most of the previous analyses, single-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB1) were identified based on radial velocities variations. However, this apparent variation may also be caused by mechanisms unrelated to multiplicity. Aims. We seek to update the spectroscopy binary fraction of the Search for Associations Containing Young stars (SACY) sample, taking into consideration all possible biases in our identification of binary candidates, such as activity and rotation. Methods. Using high-resolution spectroscopic observations, we produced ∼1300 cross-correlation functions (CCFs) to disentangle the previously mentioned sources of contamination. The radial velocity values we obtained were cross-matched with the literature and then used to revise and update the spectroscopic binary (SB) fraction in each object of the SACY association. In order to better describe the CCF profile, we calculated a set of high-order cross-correlation features to determine the origin of the variations in radial velocities. Results. We identified 68 SB candidates from our sample of 410 objects. Our results hint that at the possibility that the youngest associations have a higher SB fraction. Specifically, we found sensitivity-corrected SB fractions of 22−11+15% for ϵ Cha, 31−14+16% for TW Hya and 32−8+9% for β Pictoris, in contrast to the five oldest associations we have sampled (∼35−125 Myr) which are ∼10% or lower. This result seems independent of the methodology used to asses membership to the associations. Conclusions. The new CCF analysis, radial velocity estimates, and SB candidates are particularly relevant for membership revision of targets in young stellar associations. These targets would be ideal candidates for follow-up campaigns using high-resolution techniques to confirm binarity, resolve orbits, and, ideally, calculate dynamical masses. Additionally, if the results on the SB fraction in the youngest associations were confirmed, it could hint at a non-universal multiplicity among SACY associations.

2020 ◽  
Vol 643 ◽  
pp. A116
A. de Burgos ◽  
S. Simon-Díaz ◽  
D. J. Lennon ◽  
R. Dorda ◽  
I. Negueruela ◽  

Context. The Perseus OB1 association, including the h and χ Persei double cluster, is an interesting laboratory for the investigation of massive star evolution as it hosts one of the most populous groupings of blue and red supergiants (Sgs) in the Galaxy at a moderate distance and extinction. Aims. We discuss whether the massive O-type, and blue and red Sg stars located in the Per OB1 region are members of the same population, and examine their binary and runaway status. Methods. We gathered a total of 405 high-resolution spectra for 88 suitable candidates around 4.5 deg from the center of the association, and compiled astrometric information from Gaia DR2 for all of them. This was used to investigate membership and identify runaway stars. By obtaining high-precision radial velocity (RV) estimates for all available spectra, we investigated the RV distribution of the global sample (as well as different subsamples) and identified spectroscopic binaries (SBs). Results. Most of the investigated stars belong to a physically linked population located at d = 2.5 ± 0.4 kpc. We identify 79 confirmed or likely members, and 5 member candidates. No important differences are detected in the distribution of parallaxes when stars in h and χ Persei or the full sample are considered. In contrast, most O-type stars seem to be part of a differentiated population in terms of kinematical properties. In particular, the percentage of runaways among them (45%) is considerable higher than for the more evolved targets (which is lower than ∼5% in all cases). A similar tendency is also found for the percentage of clearly detected SBs, which already decreases from 15% to 10% when the O star and B Sg samples are compared, respectively, and practically vanishes in the cooler Sgs. Concerning this latter result, our study illustrates the importance of taking the effect of the ubiquitous presence of intrinsic variability in the blue-to-red Sg domain into account to avoid the spurious identification of pulsating stars as SBs. Conclusions. All but 4 stars in our working sample (including 10 O giants/Sgs, 36 B Sgs, 9 B giants, 11 A/F Sgs, and 18 red Sgs) can be considered as part of the same (interrelated) population. However, any further attempt to describe the empirical properties of this sample of massive stars in an evolutionary context must take into account that an important fraction of the O stars is or likely has been part of a binary/multiple system. In addition, some of the other more evolved targets may have also been affected by binary evolution. In this line of argument, it is also interesting to note that the percentage of spectroscopic binaries within the evolved population of massive stars in Per OB1 is lower by a factor 4−5 than in the case of dedicated surveys of O-type stars in other environments that include a much younger population of massive stars.

2020 ◽  
Vol 642 ◽  
pp. A168
S. R. Berlanas ◽  
A. Herrero ◽  
F. Comerón ◽  
S. Simón-Díaz ◽  
D. J. Lennon ◽  

Context. Cygnus OB2 provides a unique insight into the high-mass stellar content in one of the largest groups of young massive stars in our Galaxy. Although several studies of its massive population have been carried out over the last decades, an extensive spectroscopic study of the whole known O-star population in the association is still lacking. Aims. We aim to carry out a spectroscopic characterization of all the currently known O stars in Cygnus OB2, determining the distribution of rotational velocities and accurate stellar parameters to obtain an improved view of the evolutionary status of the region. Methods. Based on existing and new optical spectroscopy, we performed a detailed quantitative spectroscopic analysis of all the known O-type stars identified in the association. For this purpose, we used the user-friendly iacob-broad and iacob-gbat automatized tools, FASTWIND stellar models, and astrometry provided by the Gaia second data release. Results. We created the most complete spectroscopic census of O stars carried out so far in Cygnus OB2 using already existing and new spectroscopy. We present the spectra for 78 O-type stars, from which we identify new binary systems, obtain the distribution of rotational velocities, and determine the main stellar parameters for all the stars in the region that have not been detected as double-line spectroscopic binaries. We also derive radii, luminosities, and masses for those stars with reliable Gaia astrometry, in addition to creating the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram to interpret the evolutionary status of the association. Finally, we inspect the dynamical state of the population and identify runaway candidates. Conclusions. Our spectroscopic analysis of the O-star population in Cygnus OB2 has led to the discovery of two new binary systems and the determination of the main stellar parameters, including rotational velocities, luminosities, masses, and radii for all identified stars. This work has shown the improvement reached when using accurate spectroscopic parameters and astrometry for the interpretation of the evolutionary status of a population, revealing, in the case of Cygnus OB2, at least two star-forming bursts at ~3 and ~5 Myr. We find an apparent deficit of very fast rotators in the distribution of rotational velocities. The inspection of the dynamical distribution of the sample has allowed us to identify nine O stars with peculiar proper motions and discuss a possible dynamical ejection scenario or past supernova explosions in the region.

2020 ◽  
Vol 249 (2) ◽  
pp. 34
Benjamin R. Roulston ◽  
Paul J. Green ◽  
Aurora Y. Kesseli

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