spectroscopic characterization
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 925
Sara Illodo ◽  
Cibrán Pérez-González ◽  
Ramiro Barcia ◽  
Flor Rodríguez-Prieto ◽  
Wajih Al-Soufi ◽  

Guanine quadruplexes (G4s) are highly polymorphic four-stranded structures formed within guanine-rich DNA and RNA sequences that play a crucial role in biological processes. The recent discovery of the first G4 structures within mitochondrial DNA has led to a small revolution in the field. In particular, the G-rich conserved sequence block II (CSB II) can form different types of G4s that are thought to play a crucial role in replication. In this study, we decipher the most relevant G4 structures that can be formed within CSB II: RNA G4 at the RNA transcript, DNA G4 within the non-transcribed strand and DNA:RNA hybrid between the RNA transcript and the non-transcribed strand. We show that the more abundant, but unexplored, G6AG7 (37%) and G6AG8 (35%) sequences in CSB II yield more stable G4s than the less profuse G5AG7 sequence. Moreover, the existence of a guanine located 1 bp upstream promotes G4 formation. In all cases, parallel G4s are formed, but their topology changes from a less ordered to a highly ordered G4 when adding small amounts of potassium or sodium cations. Circular dichroism was used due to discriminate different conformations and topologies of nucleic acids and was complemented with gel electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy studies.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Haijian Li ◽  
Hao Zou ◽  
Zhihua Sun ◽  
Yi Xu ◽  
Changjian Wang ◽  

The composition, structure, and thermal behaviors of yttrium-containing phosphate glasses were studied in this work, and the glass-ceramics were prepared via the two-step crystallization method. The XRD and SEM-EDS results show the forming range of the phosphate glass system and the formation of YPO4 (xenotime) due to the addition of excessive Y2O3. The spectroscopic characterization of these glasses presented shifts of the infrared and Raman bands, demonstrating the depolymerization of the glass network and the formation of novel P–O–Y bonds, and the deconvoluted Raman spectra also exhibited the occurrence of the disproportionation reaction in the glass melting process. The content of non-bridging oxygen (NBOs) from the UV–vis spectra first increased and then decreased with increasing Y2O3. The thermal behaviors show that the Y2O3 reduced the crystallization peak temperature and the thermal stability of the glasses. The crystalline behaviors of the phosphate glass matrix were investigated at different crystallization times of 2–10 h, and a transformation of the crystallization mechanism from surface to volume crystallization was found. The yttrium phosphate glass-ceramics crystallized for 10 h exhibited transformation of the main crystalline phases with increasing Y2O3, and the grain-oriented crystalline surface became irregular.

Noufal Merukan Chola ◽  
Vikram Singh ◽  
Vivek Verma ◽  
Rajaram K Nagarale

Abstract Aqueous zinc batteries are increasingly gaining attention of the researchers in recent years because of their environmental and user friendliness as well as the economic benefits of the zinc metal. Herein we report a ferrocene based organic cathode synthesized by following green chemistry principle and stabilized by low temperature thermal encapsulation in multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) for stable electrochemical performance. Successful intercalation was confirmed by XRD, Raman, FTIR spectra, TEM-HAADF imaging. Without encapsulation, material exhibited initial capacity of 64.7 mAhg-1 which was drastically faded with time due to dissolution of active material. However, by low temperature thermal encapsulation, the capacity was remarkably improved to 71.3 mAhg-1 with 94% columbic efficiency and 91% capacity retention at a current density of 75mAg-1 in a 100 charge/discharge cycles. The stability of the electrode has been explained on the basis of a friendly host-guest interaction between CNTs and the organic molecules by π-π stacking, dipole-dipole and dipole induced dipole interactions with detailed electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization. From this study we conclude that the thermal intercalation in MWCNTs has been found to be excellent method to stabilize the electrode materials in battery application.

2022 ◽  
Abhiney Jain ◽  
Anaísa Coelho ◽  
Joana Madjarov ◽  
Smilja Todorovic ◽  
Ricardo O. Louro ◽  

The freshwater chemolithoautotrophic Gram-negative bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 oxidizes Fe(II) at the cell surface. In this organism, it is proposed that the monoheme cytochrome MtoD from the Mto pathway transfer electrons across the periplasm to an inner membrane NapC/NirT family tetraheme cytochrome encoded by Slit_2495, for which we propose the name ImoA (inner membrane oxidoreductase). ImoA has been proposed to function as the quinone reductase, receiving electrons from iron oxidizing extracellular electron uptake pathway to reduce the quinone pool. In this study, ImoA was cloned on a pBAD plasmid vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the purified ImoA reveals that this 26.5 kDa cytochrome contains one high-spin and three low-spin hemes. Our data show that ImoA can function as a quinol oxidase and is able to functionally replace CymA, a related NapC/NirT family tetraheme cytochrome required for anaerobic respiration of a wide range of substrates by Shewanella oneidensis. We demonstrate that ImoA can transfer electrons to different periplasmic proteins from S. oneidensis including STC and FccA, but in a manner that is distinct from that of CymA. Phylogenetic analysis shows that ImoA is clustered closer to NirT sequences than to CymA. This study suggests that ImoA functions as a quinol oxidase in S. oneidensis and raises questions about the directionality and/or reversibility of electron flow through the Mto pathway in S. lithotrophicus ES-1.

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