mass ratio
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiaoteng Li ◽  
Huilin Bing ◽  
Siyi Luo ◽  
Weiwei Zhang ◽  
Zongliang Zuo ◽  

In order to study the effect of biomass on the pyrolysis characteristics of urea-formaldehyde resin, the thermogravimetric experiments were carried out respectively using urea-formaldehyde resin (UF), rice straw (RS), and their mixed pellets with different proportions. The pyrolysis kinetics analysis was conducted. The results showed that the pyrolysis process of UF resin and mixed pellets could be divided into three stages: the drying and dehydration of the material, the rapid decomposition of volatile matter, and residue decomposition. The reaction order of UF resin and mixed pellets was discussed using the Coats–Redfern method, the activation energy of UF resin was 54.27 kJ/mol, and this value decreased with the addition of rice straw. As the mass ratio of UF resin to rice straw was 3:1, the activation energy achieved the lowest value, which means that the addition of rice straw was beneficial to the pyrolysis process of UF. In the process of pellet preparation, the falling strength and compressive strength of UF resin pellets can be improved by adding an appropriate proportion of rice straw. In this test, the yield of pyrolytic carbon reached the highest value of 23.93%, as the mass ratio of UF resin to rice straw was 3:2. When the mass ratio was 4:1, the highest liquid product yield of 43.21% was achieved.

2022 ◽  
pp. 66-83
Qingjiao Zhu ◽  
Xintong Guo ◽  
Yanan Guo ◽  
Jingjing Ma ◽  
Qingjie Guo

With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization in China, wastewater treatment is increasing yearly. As a by-product of wastewater treatment, the gasification of sludge with coal in chemical looping process is a clean and efficient conversion technology. To explore the reaction behavior of cogasification of sludge and coal with iron-based oxygen carriers (OCs) for producing hydrogen-rich syngas, the experiment of cogasification using Fe2O3/Al2O3 as OC in a fluidized bed reactor was conducted. The result showed that the volume percentage of hydrogen (H2) and syngas yield is proportional to the amount of sludge added. The optimal operation conditions were: temperature at 900 °C, the mass ratio of OC to coal at 5.80 and mass ratio of sludge to coal at 0.2. Under this operating condition, the volume percentage of H2 and syngas yield in the flue gas was 75.6 vol% and 97.5 L·min-1·kg-1, respectively. Besides, the OC showed a stable reactivity in the sixth redox cycle with added sludge. However, the reactivity of OC significantly declined in the seventh and eighth redox cycles. It was recovered when the ash was separated. The decrease in the specific surface area of the OC caused by ash deposition is the main reason for the decline in its reactivity. The kinetic analysis showed that the random pore model describes the reaction mechanism of sludge/coal chemical looping gasification (CLG). The addition of sludge can reduce the activation energy of coal CLG reaction, accelerate the gasification reaction rate and increase the carbon conversion.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 557
Xiaoqiang Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Pan

In order to solve the problem of the spontaneous combustion of coal gangue, a coal gangue fire-extinguishing material of gel–foam was developed. The foaming agent was screened by the Waring blender method with varying foam amounts, and the superabsorbent foam stabilizer was synthesized by free radical polymerization. Moreover, the gel–foam was used in a spontaneous combustion of coal gangue mountain field practice. The results showed that when the mass fraction of sodium dodecyl sulfonate and coconut oil amide propyl betaine was 0.6% and 4:6, the foaming amount was as high as 1500 mL. When the mass ratio of chitosan to acrylic acid was 1:6, the neutralization degree was 80%, the cross-linking agent was 0.8%, and the initiator was 0.01%, the water absorption of the synthesized superabsorbent foam stabilizer reached 476 mL/g. The synthesized gel–foam was tested in a spontaneous combustion coal gangue hill in a certain area, and no reburning sign was found within one month.

2022 ◽  
Marcela Machado ◽  
Maciej Dutkiewicz

Abstract The vibration characterization is directly associated with the system’s physical properties, such as mass, damping, and stiffness. For over a century, vibration resonator or dynamic absorber has been used for vibration control and mitigation in many sectors of engineering. A limitation of this device is that it acts as a notch filter, which is only effective over a narrow band of frequencies. Therefore, researchers have designed the call metamaterial, which in this case, targets the improvement of vibration attenuation and induces locally resonant bandgaps. This work investigates the broadband vibration mitigation of a beam under tensile load with periodically attached dynamic absorbers. The study uses the modal analysis approach, a simple formulation that only depends on the resonator target frequency and total mass ratio to investigate single and multiple-frequency bandgap formation. Metamaterial and rainbow metamaterial beam under tensile load are employed to widen the gap. In practical designs, a finite number of resonators is required for the open bandgap, and this ideal number is explored in the paper. Additionally, a tensiled beam (cable) virtual twin is built from a physical system to forecast its broadband vibration mitigation with the metamaterial approach. Numerical investigations are conducted regarding the effects of mass ratio and the ideal mass ratio on the open and on the gap convergence, as well as resonators in single and multiple arrangements inducing multiple gaps.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 704
Jakub Ramult ◽  
Klaudia Wiśniewska-Tobiasz ◽  
Ryszard Prorok ◽  
Dominika Madej

This study investigated the effect of the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio of steel slag on the corrosion behavior of spinel-forming alumina-based castables with a content of MgO (3–7 wt.%). Equiweight mixtures of castables and slags were calculated by FactSage, observed by HMTA, fired at 1350 °C, and investigated by XRD. From these results, we conclude that the presence of SiO2-rich phases accelerates the growth of the liquid phase in a narrow temperature range for the tested samples, which accelerates the degradation of castables. The static corrosion test was conducted by means of the coating method at 1450 °C. The corrosion index (IC) in the regions of castables affected by slags was calculated. Phases and phase distributions were evaluated by SEM-EDS. From these results, we conclude that for the slag with the lowest mass ratio of CaO/SiO2 (1.1), the reaction zone occurs only below the slag-refractory interface, which indicates the aggressive character of this slag.

Min Dai ◽  
Xiaodian Chen ◽  
Kun WANG ◽  
Yangping Luo ◽  
Shu Wang ◽  

Abstract The development of large-scale time-domain surveys provides an opportunity to study the physical properties as well as the evolutionary scenario of B-type subdwarfs (sdB) and M-type dwarfs (dM). Here, we obtained 33 sdB+dM eclipsing binaries based on the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) light curves and {\sl Gaia} early data release 3 (EDR3) parallaxes. By using the PHOEBE code for light curve analysis, we obtain probability distributions for parameters of 29 sdB+dM. $R_1$, $R_2$, and $i$ are well determined, and the average uncertainty of mass ratio $q$ is 0.08. Our parameters are in good agreement with previous works if a typical mass of sdB is assumed. Based on parameters of 29 sdB+dM, we find that both the mass ratio $q$ and the companion's radius $R_2$ decrease with the shortening of the orbital period. For the three sdB+dMs with orbital periods less than 0.075 days, their companions are all brown dwarfs. The masses and radii of the companions satisfy the mass--radius relation for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Companions with radii between $0.12R_\odot$ and $0.15R_\odot$ seem to be missing in the observations. As more short-period sdB+dM eclipsing binaries are discovered and classified in the future with ZTF and {\sl Gaia}, we will have more information to constrain the evolutionary ending of sdB+dM.

Universe ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Yu-Mei Wu ◽  
Yan-Gang Miao

Following the interpretation of matter source that the energy-momentum tensor of anisotropic fluid can be dealt with effectively as the energy-momentum tensor of perfect fluid plus linear (Maxwell) electromagnetic field, we obtain the regular higher-dimensional Reissner–Nordström (Tangherlini–RN) solution by starting with the noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild solution. Using the boundary conditions that connect the noncommutative Schwarzschild solution in the interior of the charged perfect fluid sphere to the Tangherlini–RN solution in the exterior of the sphere, we find that the interior structure can be reflected by an exterior parameter, the charge-to-mass ratio. Moreover, we investigate the stability of the boundary under mass perturbation and indicate that the new interpretation imposes a rigid restriction upon the charge-to-mass ratio. This restriction, in turn, permits a stable noncommutative black hole only in the 4-dimensional spacetime.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 512
Zhi Cheng ◽  
Xinrong Cheng ◽  
Yuchao Xie ◽  
Zhe Ma ◽  
Yuhao Liu

Desulfurization ash and fly ash are solid wastes discharged from boilers of power plants. Their utilization rate is low, especially desulfurization ash, most of which is stored. In order to realize their resource utilization, they are used to modify loess in this paper. Nine group compaction tests and 32 group direct shear tests are done in order to explore the influence law of desulfurization ash and fly ash on the strength of the loess. Meanwhile, FLAC3D software is used to numerically simulate the direct shear test, and the simulation results and the test results are compared and analyzed. The results show that, with the increase of desulfurization ash’s amount, the shear strength of the modified loess increases first and then decreases. The loess modified by the fly ash has the same law with that of the desulfurization ash. The best mass ratio of modified loess is 80:20. When the mass ratio is 80:20, the shear strength of loess modified by the desulfurization ash is 12.74% higher than that of the pure loess on average and the shear strength of loess modified by fly ash is 3.59% higher than that of the pure loess on average. The effect of the desulfurization ash on modifying the loess is better than that of the fly ash. When the mass ratio is 80:20, the shear strength of loess modified by the desulfurization ash is 9.15% higher than that of the fly ash on average. Comparing the results of the simulation calculation with the actual test results, the increase rate of the shear stress of the FLAC3D simulation is larger than that of the actual test, and the simulated shear strength is about 8.21% higher than the test shear strength.

Nature ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 601 (7891) ◽  
pp. 53-57
M. J. Borchert ◽  
J. A. Devlin ◽  
S. R. Erlewein ◽  
M. Fleck ◽  
J. A. Harrington ◽  

2022 ◽  
Quoc Huong Cao

Abstract A new hybrid type of the Tuned Mass Damper (HTMD), which consists of a Tuned Liquid Column Damper (TLCD) fixed on the top of a traditional Tuned Mass Damper (TMD), is developed for vibration control of an offshore platform. The results obtained from the parametric investigation show that the mass ratio between TLCD and TMD significantly affects the HTMD's performance. To assess the effectiveness and robustness of HTMD, extensive comparisons are made between an optimized HTMD and an optimum TMD with the same weight as the HTMD. The numerical computations indicate that the proposed HTMD offers a higher level of effectiveness in suppressing structural vibrations compared with a traditional TMD. However, the optimum HTMD is not robust in resisting the variation of the structural stiffness.

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