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Rajeev Kumar Gupta ◽  
Nilesh Kunhare ◽  
Rajesh Kumar Pateriya ◽  
Nikhlesh Pathik

The novel Covid-19 is one of the leading cause of death worldwide in the year 2020 and declared as a pandemic by world health organization (WHO). This virus affecting all countries across the world and 5 lakh people die as of June 2020 due to Covid-19. Due to the highly contagious nature, early detection of this virus plays a vital role to break Covid chain. Recent studies done by China says that chest CT and X-Ray image may be used as a preliminary test for Covid detection. Deep learning-based CNN model can use to detect Coronavirus automatically from the chest X-rays images. This paper proposed a transfer learning-based approach to detect Covid disease. Due to the less number of Covid chest images, we are using a pre-trained model to classify X-ray images into Covid and Normal class. This paper presents the comparative study of a various pre-trained model like VGGNet-19, ResNet50 and Inception_ResNet_V2. Experiment results show that Inception_ResNet_V2 gives the better result as compare to VGGNet and ResNet model with training and test accuracy of 99.26 and 94, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 108255
Aayush Kumar ◽  
Ayush R Tripathi ◽  
Suresh Chandra Satapathy ◽  
Yu-Dong Zhang

Rosana W. Marar ◽  
Hazem W. Marar

The COVID-19 pandemic is spreading around the world causing more than 177 million cases and over 3.8 million deaths according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The virus has devastating effects on economies, health, and well-being of worldwide population. Due to the high increase in daily cases, the available number of COVID-19 test kits in under-developed countries is scarce. Hence, it is vital to implement an effective screening method of patients using chest radiography since the equipment already exists. With the presence of automatic detection systems, any abnormalities in chest radiography that characterizes COVID-19 can be identified. Several artificial-intelligence algorithms have been proposed to detect the virus. However, neural networks training is considered to be time-consuming. Since computations in training neural networks are spent on floating-point multiplications, high computational power is required. Multipliers consume the most space and power among all arithmetic operators in deep neural networks. This paper proposes a 15 Gbps high-speed bipolar-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (BiCMOS) exclusive-nor (XNOR) gate to replace multipliers in binarized neural networks. The proposed gate can be implemented on BiCMOS-based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This will significantly improve the response time in identifying chest abnormalities in CT scans and X-rays.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Luís Vinícius de Moura ◽  
Christian Mattjie ◽  
Caroline Machado Dartora ◽  
Rodrigo C. Barros ◽  
Ana Maria Marques da Silva

Both reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and chest X-rays are used for the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, COVID-19 pneumonia does not have a defined set of radiological findings. Our work aims to investigate radiomic features and classification models to differentiate chest X-ray images of COVID-19-based pneumonia and other types of lung patterns. The goal is to provide grounds for understanding the distinctive COVID-19 radiographic texture features using supervised ensemble machine learning methods based on trees through the interpretable Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) approach. We use 2,611 COVID-19 chest X-ray images and 2,611 non-COVID-19 chest X-rays. After segmenting the lung in three zones and laterally, a histogram normalization is applied, and radiomic features are extracted. SHAP recursive feature elimination with cross-validation is used to select features. Hyperparameter optimization of XGBoost and Random Forest ensemble tree models is applied using random search. The best classification model was XGBoost, with an accuracy of 0.82 and a sensitivity of 0.82. The explainable model showed the importance of the middle left and superior right lung zones in classifying COVID-19 pneumonia from other lung patterns.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Amyn A. Malik ◽  
Hamidah Hussain ◽  
Rabia Maniar ◽  
Nauman Safdar ◽  
Amal Mohiuddin ◽  

As the COVID-19 pandemic surged, lockdowns led to the cancellation of essential health services. As part of our Zero TB activities in Karachi, we adapted our approach to integrate activities for TB and COVID-19 to decrease the impact on diagnosis and linkage to care for TB treatment. We implemented the following: (1) integrated COVID-19 screening and testing within existing TB program activities, along with the use of an artificial intelligence (AI) software reader on digital chest X-rays; (2) home delivery of medication; (3) use of telehealth and mental health counseling; (4) provision of PPE; (5) burnout monitoring of health workers; and (6) patient safety and disinfectant protocol. We used programmatic data for six districts of Karachi from January 2018 to March 2021 to explore the time trends in case notifications, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and service adaptations in the city. The case notifications in all six districts in Karachi were over 80% of the trend-adjusted expected notifications with three districts having over 90% of the expected case notifications. Overall, Karachi reached 90% of the expected case notifications during the COVID-19 pandemic. The collaborative efforts by the provincial TB program and private sector partners facilitated this reduced loss in case notifications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Akihiko Hiyama ◽  
Taku Ukai ◽  
Satoshi Nomura ◽  
Masahiko Watanabe

Abstract Background The subcutaneous screw rod system, commonly known as the internal pelvic fixator (INFIX), is useful in managing unstable pelvic ring fractures. Conventional INFIX and transiliac–transsacral (TITS) screw techniques are performed using C-arm fluoroscopy. There have been problems with medical exposure and screw insertion accuracy with these techniques. This work describes new INFIX and TITS techniques using intraoperative computed tomography (CT) navigation and C-arm fluoroscopy for pelvic ring fracture. Methods A typical case is presented in this study. An 86-year-old woman suffered from an unstable pelvic ring fracture due to a fall from a height. INFIX and TITS screw fixation with intraoperative CT navigation were selected to optimize surgical invasiveness and proper implant placement. Results The patient was placed in a supine position on a Jackson table. An intraoperative CT navigation was imaged, and screws were inserted under the navigation. Postoperative X-rays and CT confirmed that the screw was inserted correctly. This technique was less invasive to the patient and had little radiation exposure to the surgeon. Rehabilitation of walking practice was started early after the surgery, and she was able to walk with the assistance of a walker by the time of transfer. Conclusions The technique employed in our case study has the cumulative advantages of safety, accuracy, and reduced radiation exposure, together with the inherent advantages of functional outcomes of previously reported INFIX and TITS screw techniques. Further experience with this approach will refine this technique to overcome its limitations and facilitate its wider use.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Vinu Sherimon ◽  
P.C. Sherimon ◽  
Rahul V. Nair ◽  
Renchi Mathew ◽  
Sandeep M. Kumar ◽  

Introduction: Humankind is passing through a period of significant instability and a worldwide health catastrophe that has never been seen before. COVID-19 spread over the world at an unprecedented rate. In this context, we undertook a rapid research project in the Sultanate of Oman. We developed ecovid19 application, an ontology-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) with teleconference capability for easy, fast diagnosis and treatment for primary health centers/Satellite Clinics of the Royal Oman Police (ROP) of Sultanate of Oman.Materials and Methods: The domain knowledge and clinical guidelines are represented using ontology. Ontology is one of the most powerful methods for formally encoding medical knowledge. The primary data was from the ROP hospital's medical team, while the secondary data came from articles published in reputable journals. The application includes a COVID-19 Symptom checker for the public users with a text interface and an AI-based voice interface and is available in English and Arabic. Based on the given information, the symptom checker provides recommendations to the user. The suspected cases will be directed to the nearby clinic if the risk of infection is high. Based on the patient's current medical condition in the clinic, the CDSS will make suitable suggestions to triage staff, doctors, radiologists, and lab technicians on procedures and medicines. We used Teachable Machine to create a TensorFlow model for the analysis of X-rays. Our CDSS also has a WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication system) based teleconferencing option for communicating with expert clinicians if the patient develops difficulties or if expert opinion is requested.Results: The ROP hospital's specialized doctors tested our CDSS, and the user interfaces were changed based on their suggestions and recommendations. The team put numerous types of test cases to assess the clinical efficacy. Precision, sensitivity (recall), specificity, and accuracy were adequate in predicting the various categories of patient instances.Conclusion: The proposed CDSS has the potential to significantly improve the quality of care provided to Oman's citizens. It can also be tailored to fit other terrifying pandemics.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Kottakkaran Sooppy Nisar ◽  
Aftab Ahmed Faridi ◽  
Sohail Ahmad ◽  
Nargis Khan ◽  
Kashif Ali ◽  

The mass and heat transfer magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows have a substantial use in heat exchangers, electromagnetic casting, X-rays, the cooling of nuclear reactors, mass transportation, magnetic drug treatment, energy systems, fiber coating, etc. The present work numerically explores the mass and heat transportation flow of MHD micropolar fluid with the consideration of a chemical reaction. The flow is taken between the walls of a permeable channel. The quasi-linearization technique is utilized to solve the complex dynamical coupled and nonlinear differential equations. The consequences of the preeminent parameters are portrayed via graphs and tables. A tabular and graphical comparison evidently reveals a correlation of our results with the existing ones. A strong deceleration is found in the concentration due to the effect of a chemical reaction. Furthermore, the impact of the magnetic field force is to devaluate the mass and heat transfer rates not only at the lower but at the upper channel walls, likewise.

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