lv remodeling
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Ming-Kui Zhang ◽  
Li-Na Li ◽  
Hui Xue ◽  
Xiu-Jie Tang ◽  
He Sun ◽  

Abstract Background Aortic valve replacement (AVR) for chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) with a severe dilated left ventricle and dysfunction leads to left ventricle remodeling. But there are rarely reports on the left ventricle reverse remodeling (LVRR) after AVR. This study aimed to investigate the LVRR and outcomes in chronic AR patients with severe dilated left ventricle and dysfunction after AVR. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical datum of chronic aortic regurgitation patients who underwent isolated AVR. The LVRR was defined as an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at least 10 points or a follow-up LVEF ≥ 50%, and a decrease in the indexed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of at least 10%, or an indexed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ≤ 33 mm/m2. The changes in echocardiographic parameters after AVR, survival analysis, the predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), the association between LVRR and MACE were analyzed. Results Sixty-nine patients with severe dilated left ventricle and dysfunction underwent isolated AVR. LV remodeling in 54 patients and no LV remodeling in 15 patients at 6–12 months follow-up. The preoperative left ventricular dimensions and volumes were larger, and the EF was lower in the LV no remodeling group than those in the LV remodeling group (all p < 0.05). The adverse LVRR was the predictor for MACE at follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 47.29 months (range 6 to 173 months). The rate of freedom from MACE was 94.44% at 5 years and 92.59% at 10 years in the remodeling group, 60% at 5 years, and 46.67% at 10 years in the no remodeling group. Conclusions The left ventricle remodeling after AVR was the important predictor for MACE. LV no remodeling may not be associated with benefits from AVR for chronic aortic regurgitation patients with severe dilated LV and dysfunction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Fatih Yalçin ◽  
Hulya Yalçin ◽  
Nagehan Küçükler ◽  
Serbay Arslan ◽  
Oguz Akkuş ◽  

Hypertension plays a dominant role in the development of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and heart failure, in addition to being the main risk factor for coronary artery disease. In this review, we focus on the focal geometric and functional tissue aspects of the LV septal base, since basal septal hypertrophy (BSH), as the early imaging biomarker of LV remodeling due to hypertensive heart disease, is detected in cross-sectional clinic studies. In addition, the validation of BSH by animal studies using third generation microimaging and relevant clinical observations are also discussed in the report. Finally, an evaluation of both human and animal quantitative imaging studies and the importance of combined cardiac imaging methods and stress-induction in the separation of adaptive and maladaptive phases of the LV remodeling are pointed out. As a result, BSH, as the early imaging biomarker and quantitative follow-up of functional analysis in hypertension, could possibly contribute to early treatment in a timely fashion in the prevention of hypertensive disease progression to heart failure. A variety of stress stimuli in etiopathogenesis and the difficulty of diagnosing pure hemodynamic overload mediated BSH lead to an absence of the certain prevalence of this particular finding in the population.

2021 ◽  
Yijun Pan ◽  
Jiang Lin ◽  
Yongshi Wang ◽  
Jun Li ◽  
Pengju Xu ◽  

Abstract To determine the relationship between aortic distensibility and left ventricular (LV) remodeling, myocardial strain and blood biomarkers in patients with stenotic bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). 43 stenotic BAV patients were prospectively selected for 3.0T CMR. Patients were divided into LV remodeling group (LV mass /volume ≥ 1.15, n=21) and non-remodeling group (LV mass/volume < 1.15, n=22). Clinical characteristics, biochemical data including cardiac troponin T(cTNT), N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and creatine kinase isoenzyme were noted. Distensibility of middle ascending aorta (mid-AA) and proximal descending aorta, LV structural and functional parameters, global and regional myocardial strain were measured. Compared to non-remodeling group, LV remodeling group had significantly decreased LV global strain (radial: 26.04±8.70 % vs. 32.92±7.81 %, P=0.009; circumferential: -17.20±3.38 % vs. -19.65±2.34 %, P=0.008; longitudinal: -9.13±2.34 % vs. -11.63±1.99 %, P<0.001), while radial and circumferential strain were significantly reduced at the base (radial: 28.52±9.47 % vs. 39.65±10.33 %, P=0.001; circumferential: -14.45±2.97 % vs. -17.22±2.38 %, P=0.002), longitudinal strain was significantly reduced at all regions (basal: -5.79±3.43 % vs. -8.65±2.42 %, P=0.003; mid: -8.62±2.21 % vs. -11.33±2.58 %, P=0.001; apical : -12.79±2.49 % vs. -15.04±2.20 %, P=0.003). In addition, mid-AA distensibility was independently associated with LV remodeling (β=-0.282, P=0.003), and it was also significantly correlated with LV global strain (radial: r=0.392, P=0.009; circumferential: r=-0.348, P=0.022; longitudinal: r=-0.333, P=0.029), cTNT (r=-0.333, P=0.029) and NT-proBNP (r= -0.440, P=0.003). In this cohort with stenotic BAV and preserved EF, mid-AA distensibility is found significantly associated with LV dysfunction, which may be an important factor for predicting adverse cardiovascular events and a potential therapeutic target to prevent heart failure.

T. Y. Storozhenko ◽  
M. P. Kopytsya ◽  
I. R. Vishnevska ◽  
L. L. Pietienova

Objective — to assess the role of circulating markers of inflammation and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the development of left ventricular (LV) remodeling 6 months after acute ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Materials and methods. The study involved 120 patients after STEMI and successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Transthoracic echocardiography with Doppler was performed within 24 — 48 hours after PCI and after 6 months of follow‑up to assess LV remodeling. The levels of MIF and inflammatory markers were measured before and after PCI. All patients were divided into two groups according to the median MIF level < 2501 pg/ml (first group, n = 60) and > 2501 pg/ml (second group, n = 60). Results. Patients with the high levels of circulating MIF had a higher frequency of complications in the hospital and long‑term periods (p = 0.024), including newly diagnosed heart failure or decompensation with hospitalizations. High MIF levels in patients of the second group were accompanied by a significant enlargement of end‑diastolic and end‑systolic LV volumes (p = 0.028; p = 0.031, respectively), the development of secondary mitral regurgitation (p = 0.024) and decreased LV systolic function (p = 0.037). MIF threshold values for predicting remodeling > 2694 pg/ml (sensitivity 69.2 %, specificity 71.4 %, AUC = 0.714; 95 % CI  0.509 — 0.870; p = 0.0375) and LV dysfunction > 2484 pg/ml (sensitivity 90.0 %, specificity 58.0 %, AUC = 0.782; 95 % CI  0.675 — 0.867, p = 0.0003) were determined using ROC analysis. According to the results of univariate and multivariate analysis, levels of MIF (p = 0.028) and soluble suppressor of tumorigenesis‑2 (p = 0.042) were most significant predictors of LV remodeling. A correlation between the levels of MIF and white blood cells count (r = 0.33, p = 0.0001), C‑reactive protein (r = 0.19, p = 0.032), troponin (r = 0.44, p = 0.002) has been established. Conclusions. An early increase of MIF levels is associated with the development of adverse structural and functional changes in left ventricle of patients after acute ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Max Berrill ◽  
Ian Beeton ◽  
David Fluck ◽  
Isaac John ◽  
Otar Lazariashvili ◽  

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and impact of mitral regurgitation (MR) on survival in patients presenting to hospital in acute heart failure (AHF) using traditional echocardiographic assessment alongside more novel indices of proportionality.Background: It remains unclear if the severity of MR plays a significant role in determining outcomes in AHF. There is also uncertainty as to the clinical relevance of indexing MR to left ventricular volumes. This concept of disproportionality has not been assessed in AHF.Methods: A total of 418 consecutive patients presenting in AHF over 12 months were recruited and followed up for 2 years. MR was quantitatively assessed within 24 h of recruitment. Standard proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and a novel proportionality index of effective regurgitant orifice/left ventricular end-diastolic volume (ERO/LVEDV) &gt;0.14 mm2/ml were used to identify severe and disproportionate MR.Results: Every patient had MR. About 331/418 (78.9%) patients were quantifiable by PISA. About 165/418 (39.5%) patients displayed significant MR. A larger cohort displayed disproportionate MR defined by either a proportionality index using ERO/LVEDV &gt; 0.14 mm2/ml or regurgitant volumes/LVEDV &gt; 0.2 [217/331 (65.6%) and 222/345 (64.3%), respectively]. The LVEDV was enlarged in significant MR−129.5 ± 58.95 vs. 100.0 ± 49.91 ml in mild, [p &lt; 0.0001], but remained within the normal range. Significant MR was associated with a greater mortality at 2 years {44.2 vs. 34.8% in mild MR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01–1.92, p = 0.04]}, which persisted with adjustment for comorbid conditions (HR; 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04–1.97, p = 0.03). Disproportionate MR defined by ERO/LVEDV &gt;0.14 mm2/ml was also associated with worse outcome [42.4 vs. 28.3% (HR 1.62; 95% CI 1.12–2.34, p = 0.01)].Conclusions: MR was a universal feature in AHF and determines outcome in significant cases. Furthermore, disproportionate MR, defined either by effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) or volumetrically, is associated with a worse prognosis despite the absence of adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling. These findings outline the importance of adjusting acute volume overload to LV volumes and call for a review of the current standards of MR assessment.Clinical Trial Registration:, identifier NCT02728739.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2188
Stanislav Keranov ◽  
Saskia Haen ◽  
Julia Vietheer ◽  
Wiebke Rutsatz ◽  
Jan-Sebastian Wolter ◽  

The main aim of this study was to assess the prognostic utility of TAPSE/PASP as an echocardiographic parameter of maladaptive RV remodeling in cardiomyopathy patients using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Furthermore, we sought to compare TAPSE/PASP to TAPSE. The association of the echocardiographic parameters TAPSE/PASP and TAPSE with CMR parameters of RV and LV remodeling was evaluated in 111 patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and cut-off values for maladaptive RV remodeling were defined. In a second step, the prognostic value of TAPSE/PASP and its cut-off value were analyzed regarding mortality in a validation cohort consisting of 221 patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. A low TAPSE/PASP (<0.38 mm/mmHg) and TAPSE (<16 mm) were associated with a lower RVEF and a long-axis RV global longitudinal strain (GLS) as well as higher RVESVI, RVEDVI and NT-proBNP. A low TAPSE/PASP, but not TAPSE, was associated with a lower LVEF and long-axis LV GLS, and a higher LVESVI, LVEDVI and T1 relaxation time at the interventricular septum and the RV insertion points. Furthermore, in the validation cohort, low TAPSE/PASP was associated with a higher mortality and TAPSE/PASP was an independent predictor of mortality. TAPSE/PASP is a predictor of maladaptive RV and LV remodeling associated with poor outcomes in cardiomyopathy patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (B) ◽  
pp. 1364-1369
Badai Tiksnadi ◽  
Erwan Martanto ◽  
Abednego Panggabean ◽  
Ary Indriana Savitri ◽  
Alberta Claudia Undarsa

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension are related with left ventricle (LV) remodeling, however evidence about association between CAD and remodeling in hypertensive patient is still limited, especially in limited resource setting like Indonesia. AIM: Evaluating impact of CAD on LV remodeling within hypertensive patients at tertiary referral hospital, Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia. METHOD: Cross-sectional study involving 120 hypertensive patients who visited cardiology outpatient clinic from September-December 2019 and underwent transthoracic echocardiography examination for any medical indications. LV remodeling parameters, such as mass (LV Mass Index [LVMi]), volume (end-diastolic volume/body surface area [BSA]), and relative wall thickness (RWT), were compared between CAD and non-CAD groups. RESULTS: There were 108 patients to be analyzed, 12 patients were excluded due to technical difficulty (n = 9) and non-cooperative during interview (n = 3). Mean (standard deviation) age of patients was 56.9 (±11.8) years, 50 (46.3%) patients were male, and median (interquartile range) hypertension duration was 3 (±4.40) years. CAD was found in 40 (37.0%) patients. In the adjusted analysis, patients with CAD had average 27.75 g/m2 higher LVMi (95% confined interval [CI] 2.03; 53.47; p = 0.035) and 16.20 ml/m2 higher LV end-diastolic volume/BSA (95% CI 4.14; 28.25; p = 0.009) compared to those without. This was independent of age, duration of hypertension, consumption of antihypertensive therapy, and type-2 diabetes mellitus, but disappeared after heart failure (HF) was included in the study. CAD and non-CAD groups were not different, respectively, to RWT. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients, CAD was independently associated with higher LV mass and volume. These associations, however, were largely explained by the presence of HF. CAD did not associate with RWT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Damien Mandry ◽  
Nicolas Girerd ◽  
Zohra Lamiral ◽  
Olivier Huttin ◽  
Laura Filippetti ◽  

Introduction: This study aims to assess the changes in cardiovascular remodeling attributable to bodyweight gain in a middle-aged abdominal obesity cohort. A remodeling worsening might explain the increase in cardiovascular risk associated with a dynamic of weight gain.Methods: Seventy-five middle-aged subjects (56 ± 5 years, 38 women) with abdominal obesity and no known cardiovascular disease underwent MRI-based examinations at baseline and at a 6.1 ± 1.2-year follow-up to monitor cardiovascular remodeling and hemodynamic variables, most notably the effective arterial elastance (Ea). Ea is a proxy of the arterial load that must be overcome during left ventricular (LV) ejection, with increased EA resulting in concentric LV remodeling.Results: Sixteen obese subjects had significant weight gain (&gt;7%) during follow-up (WG+), whereas the 59 other individuals did not (WG–). WG+ and WG– exhibited significant differences in the baseline to follow-up evolutions of several hemodynamic parameters, notably diastolic and mean blood pressures (for mean blood pressure, WG+: +9.3 ± 10.9 mmHg vs. WG–: +1.7 ± 11.8 mmHg, p = 0.022), heart rate (WG+: +0.6 ± 9.4 min−1 vs. −8.9 ± 11.5 min−1, p = 0.003), LV concentric remodeling index (WG: +0.08 ± 0.16 g.mL−1 vs. WG−: −0.02 ± 0.13 g.mL−1, p = 0.018) and Ea (WG+: +0.20 ± 0.28 mL mmHg−1 vs. WG−: +0.01 ± 0.30 mL mmHg−1, p = 0.021). The evolution of the LV concentric remodeling index and Ea were also strongly correlated in the overall obese population (p &lt; 0.001, R2 = 0.31).Conclusions: A weight gain dynamic is accompanied by increases in arterial load and load-related concentric LV remodeling in an isolated abdominal obesity cohort. This remodeling could have a significant impact on cardiovascular risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (20) ◽  
pp. 11064
Beáta Bódi ◽  
Patrick M. Pilz ◽  
Lilla Mártha ◽  
Miriam Lang ◽  
Ouafa Hamza ◽  

Post-ischemic left ventricular (LV) remodeling and its hypothetical prevention by repeated remote ischemic conditioning (rRIC) in male Sprague–Dawley rats were studied. Myocardial infarction (MI) was evoked by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and myocardial characteristics were tested in the infarcted anterior and non-infarcted inferior LV regions four and/or six weeks later. rRIC was induced by three cycles of five-minute-long unilateral hind limb ischemia and five minutes of reperfusion on a daily basis for a period of two weeks starting four weeks after LAD occlusion. Sham operated animals served as controls. Echocardiographic examinations and invasive hemodynamic measurements revealed distinct changes in LV systolic function between four and six weeks after MI induction in the absence of rRIC (i.e., LV ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased from 52.8 ± 2.1% to 50 ± 1.6%, mean ± SEM, p < 0.05) and in the presence of rRIC (i.e., LVEF increased from 48.2 ± 4.8% to 55.2 ± 4.1%, p < 0.05). Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was about five times higher in the anterior LV wall at six weeks than that in sham animals. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity roughly doubled in post-ischemic LVs. These increases in ACE and ACE2 activities were effectively mitigated by rRIC. Ca2+-sensitivities of force production (pCa50) of LV permeabilized cardiomyocytes were increased at six weeks after MI induction together with hypophosphorylation of 1) cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in both LV regions, and 2) cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) in the anterior wall. rRIC normalized pCa50, cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylations. Taken together, post-ischemic LV remodeling involves region-specific alterations in ACE and ACE2 activities together with changes in cardiomyocyte myofilament protein phosphorylation and function. rRIC has the potential to prevent these alterations and to improve LV performance following MI.

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