Fibroblast Growth
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2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yuzhou Gan ◽  
Yi Sun ◽  
Jiayang Jin ◽  
Yifan Wang ◽  
Jiali Chen ◽  

Abstract Objectives Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare inflammatory arthritis, with a higher incidence of malignancy. The aim of this study is to identify biomarkers for predicting malignancy in RS3PE. Methods A total of 51 patients with RS3PE from September 2007 to May 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and followed for up to 5 years, with 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 14 patients with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) as disease controls. Serum levels of angiogenesis cytokines were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and Luminex Human Magnetic Assay. Clinical data and laboratory parameters were analyzed to identify risk factors for malignancy. Results A total of forty-eight RS3PE patients (94.1%) were available with follow-up data; 8 patients (16.7%) were diagnosed with malignancy, of which 6 patients were hematological tumor; and 2 patients were solid tumors. Serum levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were exclusively higher in RS3PE patients with malignancy [14.21 (7.52, 23.18) ng/mL] than RS3PE patients without malignancy [4.32 (2.88, 7.42) ng/mL], OA [3.20 (2.20, 5.30) ng/mL], and EORA [3.20 (2.20, 5.30) ng/mL]. The optimal cut-off value of bFGF for malignancy was 10ng/mL in RS3PE. Logistic regression analysis indicated that elevation of bFGF was a risk factor for malignancy in RS3PE. Conclusions This study indicated that bFGF was elevated in RS3PE patients with malignancy and could serve as a biomarker for predicting paraneoplastic RS3PE.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 103-117
Deepak Grover ◽  
Navneet Kaur ◽  
Gurpreet Kaur

With the advanced and improved knowledge of bone regeneration on the molecular level, some of key molecules that alter the complicated physiological method were identified, and are already in scientific use or beneath research to enhance bone restore. Of those molecules, BMPs were the maximum considerably studied, as they are robust osteoinductive elements. They result in the mitogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and different osteoprogenitors, and their differentiation in the direction of osteoblasts. Other growth factors except BMPs which have been implicated through out the bone regeneration, with one-of-a-kind features with respect of cell proliferation, chemotaxis and angiogenesis, are also being investigated or are presently getting used to reinforce bone restore, which include platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor- β, insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor, amongst others. One present day technique to enhance bone regeneration and soft-tissue recovery with the aid of using nearby application of growth factors is the use of platelet-rich plasma, an extent of the plasma fraction of autologous blood with platelet concentrations above baseline, that is wealthy in most of the aforementioned molecules. This overview focuses and target on the biological mediators that regulates key cellular events which have a capacity to induce the method of tissue repair and regeneration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ye Liu ◽  
Yiqiu Liu ◽  
Junyu Deng ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Xuqiang Nie

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a combination of neuropathy and various degrees of peripheral vasculopathy in diabetic patients resulting in lower extremity infection, ulcer formation, and deep-tissue necrosis. The difficulty of wound healing in diabetic patients is caused by a high glucose environment and various biological factors in the patient. The patients’ skin local microenvironment changes and immune chemotactic response dysfunction. Wounds are easy to be damaged and ulcerated repeatedly, but difficult to heal, and eventually develop into chronic ulcers. DFU is a complex biological process in which many cells interact with each other. A variety of growth factors released from wounds are necessary for coordination and promotion of healing. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a family of cell signaling proteins, which can mediate various processes such as angiogenesis, wound healing, metabolic regulation and embryonic development through its specific receptors. FGF can stimulate angiogenesis and proliferation of fibroblasts, and it is a powerful angiogenesis factor. Twenty-three subtypes have been identified and divided into seven subfamilies. Traditional treatments for DFU can only remove necrotic tissue, delay disease progression, and have a limited ability to repair wounds. In recent years, with the increasing understanding of the function of FGF, more and more researchers have been applying FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-4, FGF-7, FGF-21 and FGF-23 topically to DFU with good therapeutic effects. This review elaborates on the recently developed FGF family members, outlining their mechanisms of action, and describing their potential therapeutics in DFU.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3585
Wojciech Czogała ◽  
Wojciech Strojny ◽  
Magdalena Schab ◽  
Agnieszka Grabowska ◽  
Karol Miklusiak ◽  

Adipokines and gastrointestinal tract hormones are important metabolic parameters, and both epigenetic factors and differential gene expression patterns may be associated with the alterations in their concentrations in children. The function of the FTO gene (FTO alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase) in the regulation of the global metabolic rate is well described, whereas the influence of protooncogene PLAG1 (PLAG1 zinc finger) is still not fully understood. A cross-sectional study on a group of 26 children with various BMI values (15.3–41.7; median 28) was carried out. The aim was to evaluate the dependencies between the level of methylation and expression of aforementioned genes with the concentration of selected gastrointestinal tract hormones and adipokines in children. Expression and methylation were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear DNA by a microarray technique and a restriction enzyme method, respectively. All peptide concentrations were determined using the enzyme immunoassay method. The expression level of both FTO and PLAG1 genes was statistically significantly related to the concentration of adipokines: negatively for apelin and leptin receptor, and positively for leptin. Furthermore, both FTO methylation and expression negatively correlated with the concentration of resistin and visfatin. Cholecystokinin was negatively correlated, whereas fibroblast growth factor 21 positively correlated with methylation and expression of the FTO gene, while FTO and PLAG1 expression was negatively associated with the level of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1. The PLAG1 gene expression predicts an increase in leptin and decrease in ghrelin levels. Our results indicate that the FTO gene correlates with the concentration of hormones produced by the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract, and PLAG1 gene may be involved in adiposity pathogenesis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms still need to be clarified.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12295
Jingwen Nie ◽  
Qing Li ◽  
Min Guo ◽  
Jiaqing Li ◽  
Jiahui Yang ◽  

Background End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients often experience hearing impairment, resulting in a high rate of disability and a decline in their quality of life. Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a diagnostic biomarker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a pathogenic contributor to CKD progression. However, the correlation between FGF23 level and CKD patients with hearing impairment remains elusive. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the FGF23 and ESRD accompanied with hearing impairment. Methods A total of 144 ESRD patients, who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University from November to December 2020, were enrolled in this study. Firstly, 144 ESRD patients underwent pure-tone audiometry (PTA). Secondly, it was attempted to randomly select 20 ESRD patients with normal hearing, and 20 ESRD patients with hearing impairment (match ratio, 1:1). Age- and gender-matched healthy people (n = 20) were also recruited as controls group. The expression levels of FGF23 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The results of pure-tone audiometry showed that the prevalence of hearing impairment in ESRD patients was 80.5%. Male ESRD patients were more likely to develop hearing impairment compared to female patients. The incidence rate of hearing impairment at a high frequency was significantly higher than that at a low frequency (P < 0.01). The serum levels of FGF23, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in ESRD patients with hearing impairment significantly increased compared with those with normal hearing and healthy controls. Conclusion ESRD patients had a higher risk of hearing loss, especially high-frequency hearing impairment. As FGF23 level increased, the risk of hearing loss was also elevated. The hearing impairment in ESRD patients was associated with the degree of kidney injury, and serum FGF23 level.

Marco Giordano ◽  
Alessandra Decio ◽  
Chiara Battistini ◽  
Micol Baronio ◽  
Fabrizio Bianchi ◽  

Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been implicated in tumor progression. In ovarian carcinoma (OC), CSC drive tumor formation, dissemination and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus contributing to the high death-to-incidence ratio of this disease. However, the molecular basis of such a pathogenic role of ovarian CSC (OCSC) has been elucidated only to a limited extent. In this context, the functional contribution of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) to OC stemness remains elusive. Methods The expression of L1CAM was investigated in patient-derived OCSC. The genetic manipulation of L1CAM in OC cells provided gain and loss-of-function models that were then employed in cell biological assays as well as in vivo tumorigenesis experiments to assess the role of L1CAM in OC cell stemness and in OCSC-driven tumor initiation. We applied antibody-mediated neutralization to investigate L1CAM druggability. Biochemical approaches were then combined with functional in vitro assays to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional role of L1CAM in OCSC. Results We report that L1CAM is upregulated in patient-derived OCSC. Functional studies showed that L1CAM promotes several stemness-related properties in OC cells, including sphere formation, tumor initiation and chemoresistance. These activities were repressed by an L1CAM-neutralizing antibody, pointing to L1CAM as a druggable target. Mechanistically, L1CAM interacted with and activated fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1), which in turn induced the SRC-mediated activation of STAT3. The inhibition of STAT3 prevented L1CAM-dependent OC stemness and tumor initiation. Conclusions Our study implicate L1CAM in the tumorigenic function of OCSC and point to the L1CAM/FGFR1/SRC/STAT3 signaling pathway as a novel driver of OC stemness. We also provide evidence that targeting this pathway can contribute to OC eradication.

Syeda Kiran Riaz ◽  
Walizeb Khan ◽  
Fen Wang ◽  
Tanwir Khaliq ◽  
Amber Malik ◽  

The underlying mechanism of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) mediated carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. For instance, FGFR1 upregulation leads to endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer patients. The current study aimed to identify FGFR1-linked genes to devise improved therapeutic strategies. RNA-seq and microarray expression data of 1,425 breast cancer patients from two independent cohorts were downloaded for the analysis. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed to identify differentially expressed pathways associated with FGFR1 expression. Validation was done using 150 fresh tumor biopsy samples of breast cancer patients. The clinical relevance of mRNA and protein expression of FGFR1 and its associated genes were also evaluated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with AZD4547 and GANT61 to identify the probable role of FGFR1 and its associated genes on cells motility and invasion. According to GSEA results, SHH pathway genes were significantly upregulated in FGFR1 patients in both discovery cohorts of breast cancer. Statistical analyses using both discovery cohorts and 150 fresh biopsy samples revealed strong association of FGFR1 and GLI1, a member of SHH pathway. The increase in the expression of these molecules was associated with poor prognosis, lymph node involvement, late stage, and metastasis. Combined exposures to AZD4547 (FGFR1 inhibitor) and GANT61 (GLI1 inhibitor) significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell motility, and invasion, suggesting molecular crosstalk in breast cancer progression and metastasis. A strong positive feedback mechanism between FGFR1–GLI1 axis was observed, which significantly increased cell proliferation and metastasis. Targeting FGFR1–GLI1 simultaneously will significantly improve the prognosis of breast cancer in patients.

Marleen Würfel ◽  
Jana Breitfeld ◽  
Claudia Gebhard ◽  
Markus Scholz ◽  
Ronny Baber ◽  

Abstract Purpose Adipokines may play an important role in the complex etiology of human obesity and its metabolic complications. Here, we analyzed the relationship between 15 adipokines, eating behavior and body-mass index (BMI). Methods The study included 557 participants of the Sorbs (62.1% women, 37.9% men) and 3101 participants of the population-based LIFE-Adult cohorts (53.4% women, 46.4% men) who completed the German version of the Three-Factor-Eating Questionnaire to assess the eating behavior types cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Serum levels of 15 adipokines, including adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP), angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF), chemerin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19, FGF-21, FGF-23, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, interleukin (IL) 10, irisin, progranulin, vaspin, pro-neurotensin (pro-NT), pro-enkephalin (PENK) and leptin were measured. Based on significant correlations between several adipokines with different eating behavior items and BMI, we conducted mediation analyses, considering the eating behavior items as potential mediation variable towards BMI. Results Here, we found that the positive association between chemerin, AFABP or leptin and BMI in Sorbian women was mediated by higher restraint or disinhibited eating, respectively. Additionally, in Sorbian women, the negative relation between IGF-1 and BMI was mediated by higher disinhibition and the positive link between AGF and BMI by lower disinhibition. In Sorbian men, the negative relationship between PENK and BMI was mediated by lower disinhibition and hunger, whereas the negative relation between IGF-1 and BMI was mediated by higher hunger. In the LIFE-Adult women´s cohort, associations between chemerin and BMI were mediated by decreased hunger or disinhibition, respectively, whereas relations between PENK and BMI were fully mediated by decreased disinhibition. Conclusion Our study suggests that adipokines such as PENK, IGF-1, chemerin, AGF, AFABP and leptin might affect the development of obesity by directly modifying individual eating behavior. Given the observational nature of the study, future experimental or mechanistic work is warranted.

Armin Zittermann ◽  
Heiner K. Berthold ◽  
Stefan Pilz

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Miao Chen ◽  
Jiawei Zhong ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Hongfei Xu ◽  
Heng Chen ◽  

Aim: The structural and electrical changes in the atrium, also known as atrial remodeling, are the main characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF). Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is an important endocrine factor, which has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of Fgf21 on atrial remodeling have not been addressed yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Fgf21 on atrial remodeling.Methods and Results: Adult mice were treated with Ang II, and randomly administrated with or without Fgf21 for 2 weeks. The susceptibility to AF was assessed by electrical stimulation and optical mapping techniques. Here, we found that Fgf21 administration attenuated the inducibility of atrial fibrillation/atrial tachycardia (AF/AT), improved epicardial conduction velocity in the mice atria. Mechanistically, Fgf21 protected against atrial fibrosis and reduced oxidative stress of the atria. Consistently, in vitro study also demonstrated that Fgf21 blocked the upregulation of collagen by Tgf-β in fibroblasts and attenuated tachypacing-induced oxidative stress including reactive oxygen species (ROS), Tgf-β, and ox-CaMKII in atrial myocytes. We further found that Fgf21 attenuated oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant genes, such as SOD2 and UCP3. Fgf21 also improved tachypacing-induced myofibril degradation, downregulation of L-type calcium channel, and upregulation of p-RyR2, which implicated protective effects of Fgf21 on structural and electrical remodeling in the atria. Moreover, Nrf2 was identified as a downstream of Fgf21 and partly mediated Fgf21-induced antioxidant gene expression in atrial myocytes.Conclusion: Fgf21 administration effectively suppressed atrial remodeling by reducing oxidative stress, which provides a novel therapeutic insight for AF.

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