Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for application in cell therapy and tissue engineering procedures because of their plasticity and capacity to differentiate into different cell types. Given the widespread use of MSCs, it is necessary to better understand some properties related to osteogenic differentiation, particularly those linked to biomaterials used in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to develop an analysis method using FT-Raman spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of biochemical components present in conditioned culture media derived from MSCs with or without induction of osteogenic differentiation. All experiments were performed between passages 3 and 5. For this analysis, MSCs were cultured on scaffolds composed of bioresorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers. MSCs (GIBCO®) were inoculated onto the pure polymers and 75:25 PHBV/PCL blend (dense and porous samples). The plate itself was used as control. The cells were maintained in DMEM (with low glucose) containing GlutaMAX® and 10% FBS at 37oC with 5% CO2 for 21 days. The conditioned culture media were collected and analyzed to probe for functional groups, as well as possible molecular variations associated with cell differentiation and metabolism. The method permitted to identify functional groups of specific molecules in the conditioned medium such as cholesterol, phosphatidylinositol, triglycerides, beta-subunit polypeptides, amide regions and hydrogen bonds of proteins, in addition to DNA expression. In the present study, FT-Raman spectroscopy exhibited limited resolution since different molecules can express similar or even the same stretching vibrations, a fact that makes analysis difficult. There were no variations in the readings between the samples studied. In conclusion, FT-Raman spectroscopy did not meet expectations under the conditions studied.
This review summarizes the structure and function of the alveolar unit, comprised of alveolar macrophage and epithelial cell types that work in tandem to respond to infection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) helps to maintain the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary immune system under physiological conditions and plays a critical role in restoring homeostasis under pathologic conditions, including infection. Given the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome, understanding basic lung physiology in infectious diseases is especially warranted. This review summarizes clinical and preclinical data for GM-CSF in respiratory infections, and the rationale for sargramostim (yeast-derived recombinant human [rhu] GM-CSF) as adjunctive treatment for COVID-19 and other pulmonary infectious diseases.
Enteric glia are a fascinating population of cells. Initially identified in the gut wall as the “support” cells of the enteric nervous system, studies over the past 20 years have unveiled a vast array of functions carried out by enteric glia. They mediate enteric nervous system signalling and play a vital role in the local regulation of gut functions. Enteric glial cells interact with other gastrointestinal cell types such as those of the epithelium and immune system to preserve homeostasis, and are perceptive to luminal content. Their functional versatility and phenotypic heterogeneity are mirrored by an extensive level of plasticity, illustrated by their reactivity in conditions associated with enteric nervous system dysfunction and disease. As one of the hallmarks of their plasticity and extending their operative relationship with enteric neurons, enteric glia also display neurogenic potential. In this review, we focus on the development of enteric glial cells, and the mechanisms behind their heterogeneity in the adult gut. In addition, we discuss what is currently known about the role of enteric glia as neural precursors in the enteric nervous system.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used for induction of inflammation in various human tissues, including dental pulp. The purpose of this study was to summarize current medical literature focusing on (1) cell types used by researchers to simulate dental pulp inflammation, (2) LPS variants utilized in experimental settings and how these choices affect the findings. Our study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched for studies reporting outcomes of lipopolysaccharide application on dental pulp cells in vitro using electronic databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science and Scopus. Having gathered data from 115 papers, we aimed to present all known effects LPS has on different cell types present in dental pulp. We focused on specific receptors and particles that are involved in molecular pathways. Our review provides an essential foundation for further research using in vitro models of pulpitis.
Understanding the different regulatory functions of epithelial and mesenchymal cell types in salivary gland development and cellular organization is essential for proper organoid formation and salivary gland tissue regeneration. Here, we demonstrate a biocompatible platform using pre-formed alginate hydrogel microtubes to facilitate direct epithelial–mesenchymal cell interaction for 3D salivary gland cell organization, which allows for monitoring cellular organization while providing a protective barrier from cell-cluster loss during medium changes. Using mouse salivary gland ductal epithelial SIMS cells as the epithelial model cell type and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts or primary E16 salivary mesenchyme cells as the stromal model cell types, self-organization from epithelial–mesenchymal interaction was examined. We observed that epithelial and mesenchymal cells undergo aggregation on day 1, cavitation by day 4, and generation of an EpCAM-expressing epithelial cell layer as early as day 7 of the co-culture in hydrogel microtubes, demonstrating the utility of hydrogel microtubes to facilitate heterotypic cell–cell interactions to form cavitated organoids. Thus, pre-formed alginate microtubes are a promising co-culture method for further understanding epithelial and mesenchymal interaction during tissue morphogenesis and for future practical applications in regenerative medicine.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single-nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples has revealed alterations in communication between various cell types, but no direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility, and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding, and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in the expression of integrin-β1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for the personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.
Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a combination of genetic predisposition, dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and environmental factors, leading to alterations in the gastrointestinal immune response and chronic inflammation. Caspase recruitment domain 9 (Card9), one of the IBD susceptibility genes, has been shown to protect against intestinal inflammation and fungal infection. However, the cell types and mechanisms involved in the CARD9 protective role against inflammation remain unknown. Design: We used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced and adoptive transfer colitis models in total and conditional CARD9 knock-out mice to uncover which cell types play a role in the CARD9 protective phenotype. The impact of Card9 deletion on neutrophil function was assessed by an in vivo model of fungal infection and various functional assays, including endpoint dilution assay, apoptosis assay by flow cytometry, proteomics and real time bioenergetic profile analysis (Seahorse). Results: Lymphocytes are not intrinsically involved in the CARD9 protective role against colitis. CARD9 expression in neutrophils, but not in epithelial or CD11c+ cells, protects against DSS-induced colitis. In the absence of CARD9, mitochondrial dysfunction in neutrophils leads to their premature death through apoptosis, especially in oxidative environment. The decrease of fonctional neutrophils in tissues could explain the impaired containment of fungi and increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation. Conclusion: These results provide new insight into the role of CARD9 in neutrophil mitochondrial function and its involvement in intestinal inflammation, paving the way for new therapeutic strategies targeting neutrophils.
B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that modulates major biological processes, including apoptosis, autophagy, and development to promote cellular adaptive responses to stress stimuli. Although BAG3 is constitutively expressed in several cell types, its expression is also inducible and is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that mostly bind to the 3′-UTR (untranslated region) of mRNAs to inhibit their translation or to promote their degradation. miRNAs can potentially regulate over 50% of the protein-coding genes in a cell and therefore are involved in the regulation of all major functions, including cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is associated with pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the response of skeletal muscle cells to ischemia by its ability to regulate autophagy. However, the biological role of miRNAs in the regulation of BAG3 in biological processes has only been elucidated recently. In this review, we discuss how miRNA may play a key role in regulating BAG3 expression under normal and pathological conditions.
Human ovarian cells are phenotypically very different and are often only available in limited amounts. Despite the fact that reference gene (RG) expression stability has been validated in oocytes and other ovarian cells from several animal species, the suitability of a single universal RG in the different human ovarian cells and tissues has not been determined. The present study aimed to validate the expression stability of five of the most used RGs in human oocytes, cumulus cells, preantral follicles, ovarian medulla, and ovarian cortex tissue. The selected genes were glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), large ribosomal protein P0 (RPLP0), beta-actin (ACTB), and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA). Overall, the stability of all RGs differed among ovarian cell types and tissues. NormFinder identified ACTB as the best RG for oocytes and cumulus cells, and B2M for medulla tissue and isolated follicles. The combination of two RGs only marginally increased the stability, indicating that using a single validated RG would be sufficient when the available testing material is limited. For the ovarian cortex, depending on culture conditions, GAPDH or ACTB were found to be the most stable genes. Our results highlight the importance of assessing RGs for each cell type or tissue when performing RT-qPCR analysis.