heterogeneous reactions
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2022 ◽  
pp. 5-22
K. I. Sonin

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to David Card, Joshua Angrist, and Guido Imbens for advancing methodology to establish casual relationships in economics. Their approach brought the notion of the natural experiment, situations in which heterogeneous reactions of different groups of people to chance shocks or policy changes allows to elicit causal effects, to the forefront of empirical analysis, and spearheaded a revolution in development of statistical methods needed to analyze the data. After the initial contributions in labor economics and economics of education, the new approach has become a new standard in economic sciences.

M. N. Nikitin ◽  
D. Pashchenko

In this paper, a method of deducting activation energies for heterogeneous reactions of steam methane reforming is presented. The essence of the method lies in iterative evaluation of kinetic parameters, namely activation energies of reactions, for a given reactor. The novelty of the method lies in utilizing a statistical approach to reduce computational effort of numerical simulation. The method produces multivariable correlations between activation energies and operational parameters of the process: pressure, temperature, steam-to-methane ratio, residence time, and catalyst properties. These correlations can be used for numerical simulations of steam methane reforming to yield methane conversion rate, spatial and temporal distribution of reaction products, temperature and pressure within the reactor. An average computational effort is equal to a batch of 18 ([Formula: see text]) simulations for [Formula: see text] variables. The method was demonstrated by evaluating two-variable correlations of activation energies with pressure and temperature. The developed numerical model was validated against adopted experimental data.

2022 ◽  
Haoyu Jiang ◽  
Yingyao He ◽  
Yiqun Wang ◽  
Sheng Li ◽  
Bin Jiang ◽  

Abstract. The presence of organic sulfur compounds (OSs) at the water surface, acting as organic surfactants, may influence the air-water interaction and contribute to new particle formation in the atmosphere. However, the impact of ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant emissions, such as SO2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the formation of OSs at the air-water interface still remains unknown. Here, we observe large amounts of OSs formation in presence of SO2, upon irradiation of aqueous solutions containing typical PAHs such as pyrene (PYR), fluoranthene (FLA), and phenanthrene (PHE), as well as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We observe rapid formation of several gaseous OSs from light-induced heterogeneous reactions of SO2 with either DMSO or a mixture of PAHs/DMSO, and some of these OSs (e.g. methanesulfonic acid) are well established secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors. A myriad of OSs and unsaturated compounds are produced and detected in the aqueous phase. The tentative reaction pathways are supported by theoretical calculations of the reaction Gibbs energies. Our findings provide new insights into potential sources and formation pathways of OSs occurring at the water (sea, lake, river) surface, that should be considered in future model studies to better represent the air-water interaction and SOA formation processes.

2022 ◽  
Muhammad Ramzan ◽  
Saima Riasat ◽  
Hammad Alotaibi

Abstract This study discusses the entropy generation analysis of electro-magneto hydrodynamics (EMHD) hybrid nanofluid copper oxide-aluminum oxide/ethylene glycol (CuO-Al2O3/C2H6O2) flow amidst two rotating disks in a porous media having variable thermophysical features. The addition of the surface catalyzed to the homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions shorten the reaction time that may be taken as a novel aspect of the undertaken EMHD hybrid nanofluid squeezing flow. The inimitability of the assumed model is supplemented by considering the simultaneous effects of the variable thermal conductivity and viscosity. To simplify the governing flow model, suitable conversions are used to accurately translate the obtained partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. The flow and energy transfer characteristics are computed and sketched graphically by using the Keller box scheme. The outcomes reveal that the drag force in radial and tangential directions depict the opposing trend for variable viscosity parameter. Furthermore, the normal magnetic and transverse electric fields play an essential role in the alignment of the nanoparticles throughout the flow field. The validation of the envisaged model is also a part of this study.

2022 ◽  
Hongxing Jiang ◽  
Jun Li ◽  
Jiao Tang ◽  
Min Cui ◽  
Shizhen Zhao ◽  

Abstract. Organosulfur compounds (OrgSs), especially organosulfates, have been widely reported at large quantities in particulate organic matter found in various atmospheric environments. Despite various kinds of organosulfates and their formation mechanisms being previously identified, a large fraction of OrgSs remain unexplained at the molecular level, impeding further knowledge on additional formation pathways and critical environmental parameters that help to explain their concentrations. In this work, the abundance and molecular composition of OrgSs in fine particulate samples collected in Guangzhou was reported. Our results revealed that organic sulfur can averagely contribute to 30 % of total particulate sulfur, and showed positively correlations with the SO2 (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and oxidants (NOx+O3, r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) results presented that more than 80 % by number of the detected OrgSs in our samples have the elemental composition of O/(4S+3N)  ≥ 1, indicating that they were largely in the form of oxidized organosulfates and/or nitrooxy organosulfates. Many OrgSs, which are tentatively attributed to previously identified biogenic and anthropogenic origins, were also present in aerosols derived from freshly-emitted combustion sources. Results show that the formation of OrgSs through an epoxide intermediate pathway could be as much as 46 %, and the oxidants levels could explain 20 % variation of organic sulfur mass. The analysis from our large FT-ICR MS dataset suggests that relative humidity, oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds via ozonolysis, and NOx-related nitrooxy organosulfate formations were the major reasons for the molecular variation of OrgSs, possibly highlighting the importance of heterogeneous reactions involving either the uptake of SO2 or the heterogeneous oxidations of particulate organosulfates into additional unrecognized OrgSs.

Viktoriya Poterya ◽  
Andriy Pysanenko ◽  
Eva Pluhařová ◽  
Ondřej Votava ◽  
Michal Fárník

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 512
Mir Waqas Alam ◽  
Syed Ghazanfar Hussain ◽  
Basma Souayeh ◽  
Muhammad Shuaib Khan ◽  
Mohd Farhan

This write-up presents a closure to the comments of Awad, M.M. (2021) on the paper “Numerical Simulation of Homogeneous–Heterogeneous Reactions through a Hybrid Nanofluid Flowing over a Rotating Disc for Solar Heating Applications” (Alam et al., 2021). The authors have addressed each of the comments in detail to uphold the correctness of the mathematical formulation together with the pertinent results presented in our published article.

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