environmental parameters
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Author(s):  
Md. Monirul Islam ◽  
Mohammad Abul Kashem ◽  
Jia Uddin

Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms in natural, controlled marine and freshwater environments. The real-time monitoring of aquatic environmental parameters is very important in fish farming. Internet of things (IoT) can play a vital role in the real-time monitoring. This paper presents an IoT framework for the efficient monitoring and effective control of different aquatic environmental parameters related to the water. The proposed system is implemented as an embedded system using sensors and an Arduino. Different sensors including pH, temperature, and turbidity, ultrasonic are placed in cultivating pond water and each of them is connected to a common microcontroller board built on an Arduino Uno. The sensors read the data from the water and store it as a comma-separated values (CSV) file in an IoT cloud named ThingSpeak through the Arduino microcontroller. To validate the experiment, we collected data from 5 ponds of various sizes and environments. After experimental evaluation, it was observed among 5 ponds, only three ponds were perfect for fish farming, where these 3 ponds only satisfied the standard reference values of pH (6.5-8.5), temperature (16-24 °C), turbidity (below 10 ntu), conductivity (970-1825 μS/cm), and depth (1-4) meter. At the end of this paper, a complete hardware implementation of this proposed IoT framework for a real-time aquatic environment monitoring system is presented.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuewei MA ◽  
Wenmian DING ◽  
Yuepeng WANG ◽  
Ping CHEN ◽  
Hui ZHOU ◽  
...  

Hailed as "The Fourth Pole", the Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean. The microbial diversity in it is extremely complicated, which might be caused by the unique environmental factors such as high salinity, low temperature, high hydrostatic pressure, and limited nutrition. Based on 4 seawater samples and 4 sediment samples obtained from the Mariana Trench, we isolated and fostered the microorganism clones with kinds of culture mediums and high-throughput culturing. By using the molecular identification methods based on PCR of 16S rDNA and ITS gene, 1266 bacterial strains in total were isolated and identified, which affiliated to 7 classes, 16 orders, 25 families and 36 genera in four phyla:Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Strains in genera Halomonas, Pseudoaltermonas were the dominant bacteria isolated from the samples. With Mantel tests on the sample-environmental parameter matrix, the sample-environmental organic matter diversity matrix and the sample-microbial diversity matrix, we concluded that the environmental parameters and the organic matters in the condition can shape the culturable bacterial diversity in deep-sea water and surface sediments from the Mariana Trench.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 576
Author(s):  
Amir Ehsan Kianfar ◽  
Mrityunjaya Sherikar ◽  
Andre Gilerson ◽  
Marcin Skora ◽  
Krzysztof Stankiewicz ◽  
...  

Suspended monorails are a common mode of transportation for materials and personnel in underground mines. The goal of the EU-funded project “Innovative High Efficiency Power System for Machines and Devices, Increasing the Level of Work Safety in Underground Mining Excavations (HEETII)” is to introduce a single-wire energy transmission system combined with a capacitive-coupling-based wireless transmission system to power the suspended tractor, along with a monitoring system that will monitor the energy network and additional environmental parameters of the mine. Additionally, the monitoring system acts as the wireless communication backbone, allowing for data transmission to surface headquarters, where the data are processed and logged in a central database. This enables operators to detect and take preemptive measures to prevent potential hazards in the mine, improving the overall efficiency of the energy transmission system. This paper describes the additional considerations required for electrical systems in underground mines with potentially explosive atmospheres, as well as the design of the energy transmission system and the monitoring system.


Author(s):  
Ermawaty Maradhy ◽  
Rizal Syarief Nazriel ◽  
Surjono Hadi Sutjahjo ◽  
Meika Syahbana Rusli ◽  
Widiatmaka Widiatmaka ◽  
...  

Tarakan dry seaweed production increased during 2012-2018 for the cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii with the longline planting method. This study aims to assess the quality of the waters and their suitability for seaweed cultivation on the coast of Tarakan Island. The environmental parameters of water quality measured were chlorophyll-a, water temperature, salinity, pH, DO, TDS, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, water depth, current velocity, protection, research location, and distance between settlements. The study was conducted with in-situ and ex-situ measurements based on APHA (2012). Water samples were taken using the multi-parameter Horiba U51. chlorophyll-a was analyzed using spectrophotometric methods, nitrate levels were analyzed using SNI 06-6989.79-2011, while phosphates were analyzed using SNI 06-6989.31-2005. The suitability of the waters is divided into 4 classes, S1 (very suitable), S2 (suitable), S3 (marginally suitable), and N (not suitable). The results showed that the coast of Tarakan Island has 3 categories, namely marginally suitable (S3) 13.20%, suitable (S2) 86.50%, and very suitable (S1) 0.30%. The existing condition of the coastal waters of Tarakan Island supports the cultivation of K. alvarezii seaweed. Tarakan Island coastal existing condition as an areal support seaweed cultivation K. alvarezii with the potential to be developed land area of 33896.73 ha.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cécile C. Bidaud ◽  
Caroline L. Monteil ◽  
Nicolas Menguy ◽  
Vincent Busigny ◽  
Didier Jézéquel ◽  
...  

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are microorganisms thriving mostly at oxic–anoxic boundaries of aquatic habitats. MTB are efficient in biomineralising or sequestering diverse elements intracellularly, which makes them potentially important actors in biogeochemical cycles. Lake Pavin is a unique aqueous system populated by a wide diversity of MTB with two communities harbouring the capability to sequester not only iron under the form of magnetosomes but also phosphorus and magnesium under the form of polyphosphates, or calcium carbonates, respectively. MTB thrive in the water column of Lake Pavin over a few metres along strong redox and chemical gradients representing a series of different microenvironments. In this study, we investigate the relative abundance and the vertical stratification of the diverse populations of MTB in relation to environmental parameters, by using a new method coupling a precise sampling for geochemical analyses, MTB morphotype description, and in situ measurement of the physicochemical parameters. We assess the ultrastructure of MTB as a function of depth using light and electron microscopy. We evidence the biogeochemical niche of magnetotactic cocci, capable of sequestering large PolyP inclusions below the oxic–anoxic transition zone. Our results suggest a tight link between the S and P metabolisms of these bacteria and pave the way to better understand the implication of MTB for the P cycle in stratified environmental conditions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hongxing Jiang ◽  
Jun Li ◽  
Jiao Tang ◽  
Min Cui ◽  
Shizhen Zhao ◽  
...  

Abstract. Organosulfur compounds (OrgSs), especially organosulfates, have been widely reported at large quantities in particulate organic matter found in various atmospheric environments. Despite various kinds of organosulfates and their formation mechanisms being previously identified, a large fraction of OrgSs remain unexplained at the molecular level, impeding further knowledge on additional formation pathways and critical environmental parameters that help to explain their concentrations. In this work, the abundance and molecular composition of OrgSs in fine particulate samples collected in Guangzhou was reported. Our results revealed that organic sulfur can averagely contribute to 30 % of total particulate sulfur, and showed positively correlations with the SO2 (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and oxidants (NOx+O3, r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) results presented that more than 80 % by number of the detected OrgSs in our samples have the elemental composition of O/(4S+3N)  ≥ 1, indicating that they were largely in the form of oxidized organosulfates and/or nitrooxy organosulfates. Many OrgSs, which are tentatively attributed to previously identified biogenic and anthropogenic origins, were also present in aerosols derived from freshly-emitted combustion sources. Results show that the formation of OrgSs through an epoxide intermediate pathway could be as much as 46 %, and the oxidants levels could explain 20 % variation of organic sulfur mass. The analysis from our large FT-ICR MS dataset suggests that relative humidity, oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds via ozonolysis, and NOx-related nitrooxy organosulfate formations were the major reasons for the molecular variation of OrgSs, possibly highlighting the importance of heterogeneous reactions involving either the uptake of SO2 or the heterogeneous oxidations of particulate organosulfates into additional unrecognized OrgSs.


Smart Cities ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 54-70
Author(s):  
Silvia Croce ◽  
Stefano Tondini

In the current scenario of massive urbanization and global climate change, an intelligent monitoring of the environmental variables is becoming fundamental to ensure good living conditions in cities. Indeed, the acquisition of data with high spatiotemporal resolution can enable the assessment of environmental vulnerabilities in urban areas towards the definition of responsive adaptation and mitigation strategies. In this context, the current work presents a two-fold approach based on low-cost cloud-connected sensors for (i) fixed and (ii) mobile monitoring of several environmental parameters. This paper, which focuses on the measurement aspects of the urban micro-climate, describes in detail the hardware and software components of both approaches, and how to exploit them for setting up a field campaign. The methods were tested in the city of Bolzano (Italy), demonstrating their suitability for identifying the spatial variability of the microclimate in relation to the urban morphology, and for highlighting the presence of the urban heat island and estimating its intensity.


Author(s):  
Futa Nakasugi ◽  
Motohiro Shimanaga ◽  
Hidetaka Nomaki ◽  
Hiromi Kayama Watanabe ◽  
Tomo Kitahashi ◽  
...  

Abstract Dirivultid copepods (Siphonostomatoida), one of the most successful meiobenthic organisms found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, have been the focus of most previous ecological studies among meiofauna in these habitats. The ecology of Harpacticoida, a major benthic copepod group in typical deep-sea floor, however, is not well understood in terms of variations in community structure and controlling factors at venting sites. The spatial heterogeneities in benthic harpacticoid composition and their association with environmental parameters were investigated at hydrothermal vent chimney structures in the calderas of three neighbouring sea knolls (Bayonnaise Knoll, Myojin Knoll and Myojin-sho Caldera) in the western North Pacific. While a previous study had reported the distribution of dirivultids was strongly associated with spatial differences in stable carbon isotopic signatures (δ13C) of organic matter in the detritus on active chimneys in the field, multivariate analyses detected no significant corelation between the parameter and harpacticoid composition in this study. Instead, high associations of the harpacticoid composition with differences in water depth and total organic carbon (TOC) concentration were detected. Ectinosomatidae dominated at vent sites with lower TOC values in the shallowest Bayonnaise Knoll, while they were less prevalent at deeper vent fields in the other knolls, where Miraciidae was the most abundant family. This study indicated the availability of vent chemoautotrophic carbon is not a primary factor controlling the composition of harpacticoids even in the habitats on the hydrothermal vents, but instead by the food amount, regardless of its resources (including marine snow from the sea surface), in the study area.


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