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2022 ◽  
Robert Fletcher

Brown Seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) of Britain and Ireland provides the first complete, up-to-date, detailed illustrated guide and keys to the nearly 200 species of brown algae present around the coasts of Britain and Ireland. It is the culmination of over 30 years of field and laboratory studies by the author. Following an exhaustive introduction that covers the biology and ecology of brown seaweeds, a checklist of species is set out, followed by clear and user-friendly keys to the genera. Particular attention is then paid to providing detailed illustrations, and the volume holds more than 300 compound plates of line drawings and photographs in its extensive taxonomic treatment. Comprehensive information is given on the geographical and seasonal distributions, synonymy, morphology, anatomy, cytology, reproduction, life histories, taxonomy, systematics and bibliographic material pertaining to each species. Notably, this flora offers a much fuller consideration of many of the lesser known, more cryptic microscopic brown algae than previously available. Further, the book also contains the results of much original research undertaken by the author. This will surely remain a standard reference work on brown seaweeds for many years to come – an indispensable research tool and field guide for phycologists and students throughout the North Atlantic region and beyond.

2022 ◽  
Vol 369 ◽  
pp. 106523
George L. Guice ◽  
Sophie R. Miocevich ◽  
Hannah S.R. Hughes ◽  
Iain McDonald ◽  
Kathryn M. Goodenough ◽  

2022 ◽  
Grace Wyngaard ◽  
Rasmus Skern-Mauritzen ◽  
Ketil Malde ◽  
Rachel Prendergast ◽  
Stefano Peruzzi

The genome size of organisms impacts their evolution and biology and is often assumed to be characteristic of a species. Here we present the first published estimates of genome size of the ecologically and economically important ectoparasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Caligidae). Four independent L. salmonis genome assemblies of the North Atlantic subspecies Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis, including two chromosome level assemblies, yield assemblies ranging from 665 to 790 Mbps. These genome assemblies are congruent in their findings, and appear very complete with Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs analyses finding over 92% of expected genes and transcriptome datasets routinely mapping over 90% of reads. However, two cytometric techniques, flow cytometry and Feulgen image analysis densitometry, yield measurements in the range of 1.3 to 1.6 Gb in the haploid genome. Interestingly, earlier cytometric measurements reported genome sizes of 939 and 567 Mbps in L. salmonis salmonis samples from Bay of Fundy and Norway, respectively. Available data thus suggest that the genome sizes of salmon lice are variable. Current understanding of eukaryotic genome dynamics suggests that the most likely explanation for such variability involves repetitive DNA, which for L. salmonis makes up approx. 60% of the genome assemblies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
pp. 3-8
Keith D. Mullin ◽  
Lisa Steiner ◽  
Charlotte Dunn ◽  
Diane Claridge ◽  
Laura González García ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-59
Paul J. Kushner ◽  
Russell Blackport ◽  
Kelly E. McCusker ◽  
Thomas Oudar ◽  
Lantao Sun ◽  

Abstract Analyzing a multi-model ensemble of coupled climate model simulations forced with Arctic sea-ice loss using a two-parameter pattern-scaling technique to remove the cross-coupling between low- and high-latitude responses, the sensitivity to high-latitude sea-ice loss is isolated and contrasted to the sensitivity to low-latitude warming. In spite of some differences in experimental design, the Northern Hemisphere near-surface atmospheric sensitivity to sea-ice loss is found to be robust across models in the cold season; however, a larger inter-model spread is found at the surface in boreal summer, and in the free tropospheric circulation. In contrast, the sensitivity to low-latitude warming is most robust in the free troposphere and in the warm season, with more inter-model spread in the surface ocean and surface heat flux over the Northern Hemisphere. The robust signals associated with sea-ice loss include upward turbulent and longwave heat fluxes where sea-ice is lost, warming and freshening of the Arctic ocean, warming of the eastern North Pacific relative to the western North Pacific with upward turbulent heat fluxes in the Kuroshio extension, and salinification of the shallow shelf seas of the Arctic Ocean alongside freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. In contrast, the robust signals associated with low-latitude warming include intensified ocean warming and upward latent heat fluxes near the western boundary currents, freshening of the Pacific Ocean, salinification of the North Atlantic, and downward sensible and longwave fluxes over the ocean.

2022 ◽  
Tiago Silva ◽  
Jakob Abermann ◽  
Brice Noël ◽  
Sonika Shahi ◽  
Willem Jan van de Berg ◽  

Abstract. Climate change is particularly strong in Greenland primarily as a result of changes in advection of heat and moisture fluxes from lower latitudes. The atmospheric structures involved influence the surface mass balance and their pattern are largely explained by climate oscillations which describe the internal climate variability. Based on a clustering method, we combine the Greenland Blocking Index and the North Atlantic Oscillation index with the vertically integrated water vapor to analyze inter-seasonal and regional impacts of the North Atlantic influence on the surface energy components over the Greenland Ice Sheet. In comparison to the reference period (1959–1990), the atmosphere has become warmer and moister during recent decades (1991–2020) for contrasting atmospheric circulation patterns. Particularly in the northern regions, increases in tropospheric water vapor enhance incoming longwave radiation and thus contribute to surface warming. Surface warming is most evident in winter, although its magnitude and spatial extent depend on the prevailing atmospheric configuration. Relative to the reference period, increases in sensible heat flux in the summer ablation zone are found irrespective of the atmospheric circulation pattern. Especially in the northern ablation zone, these are explained by the stronger katabatic winds which are partly driven by the larger surface pressure gradients between the ice/snow-covered surface and adjacent seas, and by the larger temperature gradient between near-surface air and the air above. Increases in net shortwave radiation are mainly connected to high-pressure systems. Whereas in the southern part of Greenland the atmosphere has gotten optical thinner, thus allowing more incoming shortwave radiation to reach the surface, in the northern part the incoming shortwave radiation flux has changed little with respect to the reference period, but the surface albedo decreased due to the expansion of the bare ice area.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-49

Abstract In this study, we examine the wintertime environmental precursors of summer anticyclonic wave breaking (AWB) over the North Atlantic region and assess the applicability of these precursors in predicting AWB impacts on seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity. We show that predictors representing the environmental impacts of subtropical AWB on seasonal TC activity improve the skill of extended-range seasonal forecasts of TC activity. There is a significant correlation between boreal winter and boreal summer AWB activity via AWB-forced phases of the quasi-stationary North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Years with above-normal boreal summer AWB activity over the North Atlantic region also show above-normal AWB activity in the preceding boreal winter that tends to force a positive phase of the NAO that persists through the spring. These conditions are sustained by continued AWB throughout the year, particularly when El Niño-Southern Oscillation plays less of a role at forcing the large-scale circulation. While individual AWB events are synoptic and nonlinear with little predictability beyond 8-10 days, the strong dynamical connection between winter and summer wave breaking lends enough persistence to AWB activity to enable predictability of its potential impacts on TC activity. We find that the winter-summer relationship improves the skill of extended-range seasonal forecasts from as early as an April lead time, particularly for years when wave breaking has played a crucial role in suppressing TC development.

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