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Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Melanie Welden ◽  
Arshak Poghossian ◽  
Farnoosh Vahidpour ◽  
Tim Wendlandt ◽  
Michael Keusgen ◽  

Utilizing an appropriate enzyme immobilization strategy is crucial for designing enzyme-based biosensors. Plant virus-like particles represent ideal nanoscaffolds for an extremely dense and precise immobilization of enzymes, due to their regular shape, high surface-to-volume ratio and high density of surface binding sites. In the present work, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles were applied for the co-immobilization of penicillinase and urease onto the gate surface of a field-effect electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor capacitor (EISCAP) with a p-Si-SiO2-Ta2O5 layer structure for the sequential detection of penicillin and urea. The TMV-assisted bi-enzyme EISCAP biosensor exhibited a high urea and penicillin sensitivity of 54 and 85 mV/dec, respectively, in the concentration range of 0.1–3 mM. For comparison, the characteristics of single-enzyme EISCAP biosensors modified with TMV particles immobilized with either penicillinase or urease were also investigated. The surface morphology of the TMV-modified Ta2O5-gate was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the bi-enzyme EISCAP was applied to mimic an XOR (Exclusive OR) enzyme logic gate.

Han Mingyue ◽  
Yang Luo ◽  
Liuhe Li ◽  
Hua Li ◽  
Ye Xu ◽  

Abstract Investigating the ion dynamics in the emerging bipolar pulse high power impulse magnetron sputtering (BP-HiPIMS) discharge is necessary and important for broadening its industrial applications. Recently, an optimized plasma source operating the BP-HiPIMS with an auxiliary anode and a solenoidal coil is proposed to enhance the plasma flux and energy, named as ACBP-HiPIMS (‘A’-anode, ‘C’-coil). In the present work, the temporal evolutions of the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) in BP-HiPIMS and ACBP-HiPIMS discharges are measured using a retarding field energy analyser (RFEA). For the BP-HiPIMS discharge, operated at various positive pulse voltages U+, the temporal evolutions of IVDFs illustrate that there are two high-energy peaks, E1 and E2, which are both lower than the applied U+. The ratio of the mean ion energy Ei,mean to the applied U+ is around 0.55-0.6 at various U+. In ACBP-HiPIMS discharge, the IVDF evolution shows three distinguishable stages which has the similar evolution trend with the floating potential Vf on the RFEA frontplate: (i) the stable stage with two high-energy peaks (E2 and E3 with energy respectively lower and higher than the applied U+ amplitude) when the floating potential Vf is close to the applied positive pulse voltage; (ii) the transition stage with low-energy populations when the Vf drops by ~20 V within ~10 μs; and (iii) the oscillation stage with alternating E2 and E3 populations and ever-present E1 population when the Vf slighly descreases unitl to the end of positive pulse. The comparison of IVDFs in BP-HiPIMS and ACBP-HiPIMS suggests that both the mean ion energy and high-energy ion flux have been effectively improved in ACBP-HiPIMS discharge. The formation of floating potential drop is explored using the Langmuir probe which may be attributed to the establishment of anode double layer structure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-74
H. N. DUTTA ◽  

During the ninth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica, in the year 1990, a micro-meteorological tower was installed at Maitri (70° S, 12° E) on the rocky terrain and on an experimental basis, on the nearby ice-shelf at the location of Dakshin Gangotri (70° 7¢ S, 11° 7¢ E). The synoptic features strongly influencing over the sites are the southeasterly  katabatic winds from the polar cap and/or northerly low level warm and humid winds from the sea. These flows are responsible for the formation of strong surface based inversion and strong convective conditions at the ice shelf and rocky terrain during the minimum and maximum insolation periods, respectively. This paper presents a study of surface layer structure over two contrasting surfaces on near-coastal Antarctica and deals with the significance of the energy exchange processes over the rocky Antarctic region and the parameterization of turbulent fluxes over surfaces having strong inversion/convection conditions. The paper makes use of turbulence structure functions  which are different from the conventional one given by Panofsky and Dutton (1984).

Erkang Li ◽  
Man Jiang ◽  
Duidui Li ◽  
Ruiduo Wang ◽  
Xin Kang ◽  

Abstract Inspired by recent advancements of graphene-based ultrafast photonic devices, as a graphene-like two-dimensional layer-structure material, Ti3C2Tx-MXene has gained much interest in nonlinear optical applications, especially in all-optical intensity modulation. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-optical modulator based on Ti3C2Tx-Mxene/polyvinyl-alcohol film with nanosecond-scale response time, modulation speed of 100 kHz, and modulation depth of 10%. Furthermore, the variation of fall edges of modulated signal pulse attributing to thermo-optic effect under different pump power was also observed. Considering the ease of fabrication, low cost, ease integration, the proposed novel modulator may open the door for highspeed all-optical communications and signal processing.

A V Zolotaryuk ◽  
Yaroslav Zolotaryuk

Abstract A heterostructure composed of N parallel homogeneous layers is studied in the limit as their widths l1, . . . , lN shrink to zero. The problem is investigated in one dimension and the piecewise constant potential in the Schrödinger equation is given by the strengths V1, . . . , VN as functions of l1, . . . , lN, respectively. The key point is the derivation of the conditions on the functions V1(l1), . . . , VN(lN) for realizing a family of one-point interactions as l1, . . . , lN tend to zero along available paths in the N-dimensional space. The existence of equations for a squeezed structure, the solution of which determines the system parameter values, under which the non-zero tunneling of quantum particles through a multi-layer structure occurs, is shown to exist and depend on the paths. This tunneling appears as a result of an appropriate cancellation of divergences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Seung-Jae Shin ◽  
Dong Hyun Kim ◽  
Geunsu Bae ◽  
Stefan Ringe ◽  
Hansol Choi ◽  

AbstractTo design electrochemical interfaces for efficient electric-chemical energy interconversion, it is critical to reveal the electric double layer (EDL) structure and relate it with electrochemical activity; nonetheless, this has been a long-standing challenge. Of particular, no molecular-level theories have fully explained the characteristic two peaks arising in the potential-dependence of the EDL capacitance, which is sensitively dependent on the EDL structure. We herein demonstrate that our first-principles-based molecular simulation reproduces the experimental capacitance peaks. The origin of two peaks emerging at anodic and cathodic potentials is unveiled to be an electrosorption of ions and a structural phase transition, respectively. We further find a cation complexation gradually modifies the EDL structure and the field strength, which linearly scales the carbon dioxide reduction activity. This study deciphers the complex structural response of the EDL and highlights its catalytic importance, which bridges the mechanistic gap between the EDL structure and electrocatalysis.

Wenke Lu ◽  
Junyan Zhang

Abstract This study investigates the mechanical response of aluminum foam sandwich panels, sandwich cylindrical shells, and sandwich shallow shells under impact loads. First, a finite element model of the sandwich panel was established, and an impact load was applied. The numerical results were compared with theoretical and experimental results to verify the model's effectiveness. Second, the energy absorption efficiency and overall deformation of sandwich panels, sandwich cylindrical shells, and sandwich shallow shells under the same impact load were studied. The research shows that the energy absorption performance of the sandwich shells is better than that of the sandwich panels, and the overall deformation is less than that of the sandwich panels. The effect of increasing panel thickness on the two types of sandwich shell studies is based on this basis. The conclusions describe that increasing the panel thickness will significantly reduce the structure's energy absorption efficiency and deformation. Finally, the effect of single-and double-layer structure on the impact resistance of sandwich shells was studied when the total thickness of the sandwich structure was unchanged. The results show that compared with the single-layer structure, the energy absorption efficiency, overall deformation, and contact force between the projectile and structure of the double-layer structure will be reduced.

Yun-Hao Peng ◽  
Dai-Hua Wang ◽  
Lian-Kai Tang

Parametric simulation of multi-chamber piezoelectric pump proposed by authors shows that its flow rate is positively correlated with chamber compression ratio when height of chamber wall is not less than central deflection of circular piezoelectric unimorph actuator (CPUA). Therefore, in this paper, principle and structure of multi-chamber piezoelectric pump with novel CPUAs with three-layer structure are proposed and realized, so as to improve its chamber compression ratio, and then improve its flow rate. Its processing technology compatible with PCB processing technology is studied and its flow rate model is established. Central deflection of CPUA with three-layer structure and the flow rate characteristics are tested. Experimental results show that when the central deflection of CPUA with three-layer structure reaches the maximum value of 106.8 μm, the chamber compression ratio and flow rate of multi-chamber piezoelectric pump reach the maximum value of 50% and 3.11 mL/min, respectively. The maximum flow rate is increased by 622% compared to unimproved pump. By comparing experimental results with numerical and finite element simulation results, the realized multi-chamber piezoelectric pump has large flow rate and the established flow rate model can predict its flow rate.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 382
Chelsea D. Appleget ◽  
Juan Sebastian Riano ◽  
Andrea M. Hodge

The microstructural transformations of binary nanometallic multilayers (NMMs) to equiaxed nanostructured materials were explored by characterizing a variety of nanoscale multilayer films. Four material systems of multilayer films, Hf-Ti, Ta-Hf, W-Cr, and Mo-Au, were synthesized by magnetron sputtering, heat treated at 1000 °C, and subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Binary systems were selected based on thermodynamic models predicting stable nanograin formation with similar global compositions around 20–30 at.%. All NMMs maintained nanocrystalline grain sizes after evolution into an equiaxed structure, where the systems with highly mobile incoherent interfaces or higher energy interfaces showed a more significant increase in grain size. Furthermore, varying segregation behaviors were observed, including grain boundary (GB) segregation, precipitation, and intermetallic formation depending on the material system selected. The pathway to tailored microstructures was found to be governed by key mechanisms and factors as determined by a film’s initial characteristics, including global and local composition, interface energy, layer structure, and material selection. This work presents a global evaluation of NMM systems and demonstrates their utility as foundation materials to promote tailored nanomaterials.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Na-Ra Jeong ◽  
Seung-Won Han ◽  
Jeong-Hee Kim

As a green infrastructure component, urban street vegetation is increasingly being utilized to mitigate air pollution, control microclimates, and provide aesthetic and ecological benefits. This study investigated the effect of vegetation configurations on particulate matter (PM) flows for pedestrians in road traffic environments via a computation fluid dynamics analysis based on the road width (four and eight-lane) and vegetation configuration (single-, multi-layer planting, and vegetation barrier). Airflow changes due to vegetation influenced PM inflow into the sidewalk. Vegetation between roadways and sidewalks were effective at reducing PM concentrations. Compared to single-layer planting (trees only), planting structures capable of separating sidewalk and roadway airflows, such as a multi-layer planting vegetation barrier (trees and shrubs), were more effective at minimizing PM on the sidewalk; for wider roads, a multi-layer structure was the most effective. Furthermore, along a four-lane road, the appropriate vegetation volume and width for reducing PM based on the breathing height (1.5 m) were 0.6 m3 and 0.4 m, respectively. The appropriate vegetation volume and width around eight-lane roads, were 1.2–1.4 m3 and 0.8–0.93 m, respectively. The results of this study can provide appropriate standards for street vegetation design to reduce PM concentrations along sidewalks.

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