The oocyte is the female gamete that contributes not only half of the genetic material but also all of the cytoplasm to the zygote, supplying the transcripts, proteins, mitochondria and other components necessary for early embryonic development. The intrinsic oocyte quality is one of the main factors affecting the embryo yield, the implantation rate and the rate of healthy offspring. It is obvious that a fertilized oocyte must reach the blastocyst stage within 6–9 days in the proper culture conditions to have a significant chance of inducing a pregnancy and producing an offspring. The ability to sustain the first week of embryonic development is clearly influenced by the follicular status from which the oocyte is obtained indicating that this developmental potential is inherent within certain oocytes. Since most early embryos that do not reach the blastocyst stage are blocked at or close to the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT)-stage, which occurs at the eight-cell stage in cattle, one could speculate that incompetent oocytes fail to appropriately activate the embryonic genome. Oocyte selection based on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity has been successfully used to differentiate between competent and incompetent bovine oocytes. Recently, molecular regulation of genes regulating biological process of Brilliant Cresyl Blue staining (BCB) selected oocytes and embryos was investigated to explain their variation in quality and developmental potentiality. This short review will highlights some of these efforts that have been done in this interesting area of research.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell donation among Saudi population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted at different malls in Riyadh. Selection of malls was done randomly according to the geographical distribution of Riyadh, in which sample size was calculated and distributed equally. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that addressed their knowledge, attitude and motivation toward stem cell transplantation and donation. Results: Results of this study showed that population knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation is considered to be low. Only (37.8%) has enough information about stem cell transplantation and donation. There is a positive correlation between level of education and participant’s knowledge regarding stem cell transplantation and donation. The study revealed that 39.3% of participants have willingness for stem cell donation. Conclusion: It has been found that two third of population expressed lack of knowledge about stem cell transplantation and donation. Also, only 40% of participants showed willingness for donation, and the most common reason for not donating stem cell was the lack of information about stem cell and the value of donation While, increasing level of education was associated with better understanding of stem cell donation and its role in therapy and saving lives. Therefore, suitable campaign, advertising and counseling program for population is recommended to increase level of knowledge and motivation toward stem cell donation.