solid tumors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 18-24
Lucia Poncette ◽  
Julia Bluhm ◽  
Thomas Blankenstein
T Cells ◽  

Omid Reza Tamtaji ◽  
Maryam Derakhshan ◽  
Fatemeh Zahra Rashidi Noshabad ◽  
Javad Razaviyan ◽  
Razie Hadavi ◽  

A major terrifying ailment afflicting the humans throughout the world is brain tumor, which causes a lot of mortality among pediatric and adult solid tumors. Several major barriers to the treatment and diagnosis of the brain tumors are the specific micro-environmental and cell-intrinsic features of neural tissues. Absence of the nutrients and hypoxia trigger the cells’ mortality in the core of the tumors of humans’ brains: however, type of the cells’ mortality, including apoptosis or necrosis, has been not found obviously. Current studies have emphasized the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) since their crucial impacts on carcinogenesis have been discovered. Several investigations suggest the essential contribution of such molecules in the development of brain tumors and the respective roles in apoptosis. Herein, we summarize the apoptosis-related non-coding RNAs in brain tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2105898119
Yiji Liao ◽  
Chen-Hao Chen ◽  
Tengfei Xiao ◽  
Bárbara de la Peña Avalos ◽  
Eloise V. Dray ◽  

Drugs that block the activity of the methyltransferase EZH2 are in clinical development for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas harboring EZH2 gain-of-function mutations that enhance its polycomb repressive function. We have previously reported that EZH2 can act as a transcriptional activator in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Now we show that EZH2 inhibitors can also block the transactivation activity of EZH2 and inhibit the growth of CRPC cells. Gene expression and epigenomics profiling of cells treated with EZH2 inhibitors demonstrated that in addition to derepressing gene expression, these compounds also robustly down-regulate a set of DNA damage repair (DDR) genes, especially those involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Methylation of the pioneer factor FOXA1 by EZH2 contributes to the activation of these genes, and interaction with the transcriptional coactivator P300 via the transactivation domain on EZH2 directly turns on the transcription. In addition, CRISPR-Cas9–mediated knockout screens in the presence of EZH2 inhibitors identified these BER genes as the determinants that underlie the growth-inhibitory effect of EZH2 inhibitors. Interrogation of public data from diverse types of solid tumors expressing wild-type EZH2 demonstrated that expression of DDR genes is significantly correlated with EZH2 dependency and cellular sensitivity to EZH2 inhibitors. Consistent with these findings, treatment of CRPC cells with EZH2 inhibitors dramatically enhances their sensitivity to genotoxic stress. These studies reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism of action of EZH2 inhibitors and provide a mechanistic basis for potential combination cancer therapies.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 383
Jianlin Zhu ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
Fan Liu ◽  
Jinghua Pan ◽  
Zhimeng Yao ◽  

Abnormal angiogenesis is one of the important hallmarks of colorectal cancer as well as other solid tumors. Optimally, anti-angiogenesis therapy could restrain malignant angiogenesis to control tumor expansion. PELP1 is as a scaffolding oncogenic protein in a variety of cancer types, but its involvement in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, PELP1 was found to be abnormally upregulated and highly coincidental with increased MVD in CRC. Further, treatment with conditioned medium (CM) from PELP1 knockdown CRC cells remarkably arrested the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to those treated with CM from wildtype cells. Mechanistically, the STAT3/VEGFA axis was found to mediate PELP1-induced angiogenetic phenotypes of HUVECs. Moreover, suppression of PELP1 reduced tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo accompanied by inactivation of STAT3/VEGFA pathway. Notably, in vivo, PELP1 suppression could enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, which is caused by the normalization of vessels. Collectively, our findings provide a preclinical proof of concept that targeting PELP1 to decrease STAT3/VEGFA-mediated angiogenesis and improve responses to chemotherapy due to normalization of vessels. Given the newly defined contribution to angiogenesis of PELP1, targeting PELP1 may be a potentially ideal therapeutic strategy for CRC as well as other solid tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Zhen Ye ◽  
Mai Mohamed Abdelmoaty ◽  
Stephen M. Curran ◽  
Shetty Ravi Dyavar ◽  
Devendra Kumar ◽  

RNA interference (RNAi) molecules have tremendous potential for cancer therapy but are limited by insufficient potency after intravenous (IV) administration. We previously found that polymer complexes (polyplexes) formed between 3′-cholesterol-modified siRNA (Chol-siRNA) or DsiRNA (Chol-DsiRNA) and the cationic diblock copolymer PLL[30]-PEG[5K] greatly increase RNAi potency against stably expressed LUC mRNA in primary syngeneic murine breast tumors after daily IV dosing. Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes, however, maintain LUC mRNA suppression for ~48 h longer after the final dose than Chol-siRNA polyplexes, which suggests that they are the better candidate formulation. Here, we directly compared the activities of Chol-siRNA polyplexes and Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes in primary murine 4T1 breast tumors against STAT3, a therapeutically relevant target gene that is overexpressed in many solid tumors, including breast cancer. We found that Chol-siSTAT3 polyplexes suppressed STAT3 mRNA in 4T1 tumors with similar potency (half-maximal ED50 0.3 mg/kg) and kinetics (over 96 h) as Chol-DsiSTAT3 polyplexes, but with slightly lower activity against total Stat3 protein (29% vs. 42% suppression) and tumor growth (11.5% vs. 8.6% rate-based T/C ratio) after repeated IV administration of equimolar, tumor-saturating doses every other day. Thus, both Chol-siRNA polyplexes and Chol-DsiRNA polyplexes may be suitable clinical candidates for the RNAi therapy of breast cancer and other solid tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 32-39
Sachit Anand ◽  
Nellai Krishnan ◽  
Prabudh Goel ◽  
Anjan Kumar Dhua ◽  
Vishesh Jain ◽  

Background: In cases with solid tumors, preoperative radiological investigations provide valuable information on the anatomy of the tumor and the adjoining structures, thus helping in operative planning. However, due to a two-dimensional view in these investigations, a detailed spatial relationship is difficult to decipher. In contrast, three-dimensional (3D) printing technology provides a precise topographic view to perform safe surgical resections of these tumors. This systematic review aimed to summarize and analyze current evidence on the utility of 3D printing in pediatric extra-cranial solid tumors. Methods: The present study was registered on PROSPERO—international prospective register of systematic reviews (registration number: CRD42020206022). PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar databases were explored with appropriate search criteria to select the relevant studies. Data were extracted to study the bibliographic information of each article, the number of patients in each study, age of the patient(s), type of tumor, organ of involvement, application of 3D printing (surgical planning, training, and/or parental education). The details of 3D printing, such as type of imaging used, software details, printing technique, printing material, and cost were also synthesized. Results: Eight studies were finally included in the systematic review. Three-dimensional printing technology was used in thirty children with Wilms tumor (n = 13), neuroblastoma (n = 7), hepatic tumors (n = 8), retroperitoneal tumor (n = 1), and synovial sarcoma (n = 1). Among the included studies, the technology was utilized for preoperative surgical planning (five studies), improved understanding of the surgical anatomy of solid organs (two studies), and improving the parental understanding of the tumor and its management (one study). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were either performed alone or in combination for radiological evaluation in these children. Different types of printers and printing materials were used in the included studies. The cost of the 3D printed models and time involved (range 10 h to 4–5 days) were reported by two studies each. Conclusions: 3D printed models can be of great assistance to pediatric surgeons in understanding the spatial relationships of tumors with the adjacent anatomic structures. They also facilitate the understanding of families, improving doctor–patient communication.

Eudald Felip ◽  
Lucia Gutierrez-Chamorro ◽  
Maica Gómez-Plaza ◽  
Edurne Garcia-Vidal ◽  
Margarita Romeo ◽  

SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase with important roles in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, either through the regulation of intracellular dNTPs levels or the modulation of the DNA damage response. However, SAMHD1 role in cancer evolution is still unknown. We performed the first in-depth study of SAMHD1 role in advanced solid tumors, by analyzing samples of 128 patients treated with chemotherapy agents based on platinum derivatives and/or antimetabolites and developing novel in vitro knock-out models to explore the mechanisms driving SAMHD1 function in cancer. Low or no expression of SAMHD1 was associated with a positive prognosis in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cancer patients. A predictive value was associated to low-SAMHD1 expression in NSCLC and ovarian patients treated with antimetabolites in combination with platinum derivatives. In vitro, SAMHD1 knock-out cells showed increased γ-H2AX and apoptosis suggesting that SAMHD1 depletion induces DNA damage leading to cell death. In vitro treatment with platinum-derived drugs significantly enhanced γ-H2AX and apoptotic markers expression in knock-out cells, indicating a synergic effect of SAMHD1 depletion and platinum-based treatment. SAMHD1 expression represents a new strong prognostic and predictive biomarker in solid tumors and thus, modulation of SAMHD1 function may constitute a promising target for the improvement of cancer therapy.

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