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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Padayachee ◽  
F. Odun-Ayo ◽  
L. Reddy

Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Michael Gernert ◽  
Hans-Peter Tony ◽  
Matthias Fröhlich ◽  
Eva Christina Schwaneck ◽  
Marc Schmalzing

BackgroundSystemic sclerosis (SSc) patients often need immunosuppressive medication (IS) for disease control. If SSc is progressive despite IS, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is a treatment option for selected SSc patients. aHSCT is effective with good available evidence, but not all patients achieve a treatment-free remission after aHSCT. Thus far, data about the need of IS after aHSCT in SSc is not published. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of IS after aHSCT, its efficacy, and the occurrence of severe adverse events (SAEs).MethodsTwenty-seven patients with SSc who had undergone aHSCT were included in this single-center retrospective cohort study. Clinical data, including IS, SAEs, and lung function data, were collected.ResultsSixteen of 27 (59.3%) patients received IS after aHSCT. Methotrexate, rituximab, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, and hydroxychloroquine were most commonly used. The main reason for starting IS was SSc progress. Nine patients received rituximab after aHSCT and showed an improvement in modified Rodnan skin score and a stabilization of lung function 2 years after rituximab. SAEs in patients with IS after aHSCT (50.0%) were not more common than in patients without IS (54.6%). SAEs were mostly due to SSc progress, secondary autoimmune diseases, or infections. Two deaths after aHSCT were transplantation related and three during long-term follow-up due to pulmonary arterial hypertension.ConclusionDisease progression and secondary autoimmune diseases may necessitate IS after aHSCT in SSc. Rituximab seems to be an efficacious treatment option in this setting. Long-term data on the safety of aHSCT is reassuring.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexandra Butzmann ◽  
Kaushik Sridhar ◽  
Diwash Jangam ◽  
Hanbing Song ◽  
Amol Singh ◽  
...  

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are diseases occurring in immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). Although PTLD occurs rarely, it may be associated with poor outcomes. In most cases, PTLD is driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Few studies have investigated the mutational landscape and gene expression profile of PTLD. In our study, we performed targeted deep sequencing and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) on 16 cases of florid follicular hyperplasia (FFH) type PTLD and 15 cases of other PTLD types that include: ten monomorphic (M-PTLD), three polymorphic (P-PTLD), and two classic Hodgkin lymphoma type PTLDs (CHL-PTLD). Our study identified recurrent mutations in JAK3 in five of 15 PTLD cases and one of 16 FFH-PTLD cases, as well as 16 other genes that were mutated in M-PTLD, P-PTLD, CHL-PTLD and FFH-PTLD. Digital image analysis demonstrated significant differences in single cell area, major axis, and diameter when comparing cases of M-PTLD and P-PTLD to FFH-PTLD. No morphometric relationship was identified with regards to a specific genetic mutation. Our findings suggest that immune regulatory pathways play an essential role in PTLD, with the JAK/STAT pathway affected in many PTLDs.


2022 ◽  
pp. 275275302110687
Author(s):  
Caroline F. Morrison ◽  
Sarah Drake ◽  
Nathan L. Basile ◽  
Mary Jane Horn ◽  
Joshua Lambert ◽  
...  

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe symptoms experienced by survivors of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and demographic and treatment-factors associated with ongoing symptomology. Methods: Fifty pediatric survivors completed a cross-sectional pilot study. Questionnaires were administered online via REDCap to assess symptoms experienced in the last week. Survivors also consented to a medical record chart review. Results: Survivors were on average 5.4 years post-HSCT (range 1.1 to 9 years), male (58%), and Caucasian (80%) who received an allogeneic HSCT (92%). The most commonly reported symptoms were difficulty concentrating (42.5%), pain (38%), worry (38%), nervousness (37.5%), and lack of energy/fatigue (34%). Survivors reported up to 14 symptoms, with 90% of the sample experiencing at least one symptom in the previous week. Average number of symptoms varied by age group between 2.1 (8–9 years) and 6.8 (18 and older). Age and female gender were associated with higher levels of fatigue. Conclusions: The majority of survivors experienced at least one symptom in the previous week. Neuropsychological symptoms and pain endure well into survivorship that can influence outcomes such as function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Research is needed on biological mechanisms of ongoing symptomology, effective interventions to prevent or mitigate symptoms, and the impact of symptoms on patient outcomes including daily functioning and HRQOL. Implications Survivors of pediatric HSCT continued to experience symptoms for up to nine years. Survivors should be frequently screened for symptoms, as symptoms may affect function, learning/employment outcomes, and HRQOL.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yingying Chen ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Lijie Zeng ◽  
Liyan Li ◽  
Dan Lu ◽  
...  

AbstractParoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a clonal disease caused by PIG-A mutation of hematopoietic stem cells. At present, there is no suitable PNH animal model for basic research, therefore, it is urgent to establish a stable animal model. We constructed a Pig-a conditional knock-out mice model by ES targeting technique and Vav-iCre. The expressions of GPI and GPI-AP were almost completely absent in CKO homozygote mice, and the proportion of the deficiency remained stable from birth. In CKO heterozygote mice, the proportion of the deficiency of GPI and GPI-AP was partially absent and decreased gradually from birth until it reached a stable level at 3 months after birth and remained there for life. Compared with normal C57BL/6N mice and Flox mice, pancytopenia was found in CKO homozygous mice, and leukopenia and anemia were found in CKO heterozygotes mice. Meanwhile, in CKO mice, the serum LDH, TBIL, IBIL, complement C5b-9 levels were increased, and the concentration of plasma FHb was increased. Hemosiderin granulosa cells can be seen more easily in the spleens of CKO mice. What’s more, CKO mice had stable transcription characteristics. In conclusion, our mouse model has stable GPI-deficient and mild hemolysis, which may be an ideal in vivo experimental model for PNH.


Author(s):  
Nahid Reisi ◽  
Pardis Nematolahy

The development of secondary malignancy (SM) is the most worrisome long-term complication of childhood cancer. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most prevalent neoplasm that occurs after treatment with alkylating agents and topoisomerase II inhibitors. Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare lung neoplasm in children. Type II and type III of this cancer are markedly aggressive and have a recurrent nature. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are treatment modalities that make these patients prone to secondary malignancy. Here was presented and discussed a case of myeloid leukemia 3.5 years after treatment of Pleuropulmonary blastoma in a 5.5-year-old boy who was a candidate for high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cells transplant (auto-SCT) because of frequent recurrence and lack of response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It seems this is the first reported case of therapy-related myeloid leukemia (t-AML) after PPB in children. Awareness of the creation of this complication following administration of cytotoxic therapies in the treatment of solid tumors will increase physician attention in the selection of treatment modality as well as the counseling of patients at the time of diagnosis.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Patrick Wuchter ◽  
Anke Diehlmann ◽  
Harald Klüter

<b><i>Background:</i></b> The stem cell niche in human bone marrow provides scaffolds, cellular frameworks and essential soluble cues to support the stemness of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To decipher this complex structure and the corresponding cellular interactions, a number of in vitro model systems have been developed. The cellular microenvironment is of key importance, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent one of the major cellular determinants of the niche. Regulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of HSPCs requires not only direct cellular contact and adhesion molecules, but also various cytokines and chemokines. The C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 axis plays a pivotal role in stem cell mobilization and homing. As we have learned in recent years, to realistically simulate the physiological in vivo situation, advanced model systems should be based on niche cells arranged in a three-dimensional (3D) structure. By providing a dynamic rather than static setup, microbioreactor systems offer a number of advantages. In addition, the role of low oxygen tension in the niche microenvironment and its impact on hematopoietic stem cells need to be taken into account and are discussed in this review. <b><i>Summary:</i></b> This review focuses on the role of MSCs as a part of the bone marrow niche, the interplay between MSCs and HSPCs and the most important regulatory factors that need to be considered when engineering artificial hematopoietic stem cell niche systems. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Advanced 3D model systems using MSCs as niche cells and applying microbioreactor-based technology are capable of simulating the natural properties of the bone marrow niche more closely than ever before.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Merve Aksoz ◽  
Grigore-Aristide Gafencu ◽  
Bilyana Stoilova Stoilova ◽  
Mario Buono ◽  
Yiran Meng ◽  
...  

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reconstitute multi-lineage human hematopoiesis after clinical bone marrow transplantation and are the cells-of-origin of hematological malignancies. Though HSC provide multi-lineage engraftment, individual murine HSCs are lineage-biased and contribute unequally to blood cell lineages. Now, by combining xenografting of molecularly barcoded adult human bone marrow (BM) HSCs and high-throughput single cell RNA sequencing we demonstrate that human individual BM HSCs are also functionally and transcriptionally lineage biased. Specifically, we identify platelet-biased and multi-lineage human HSCs. Quantitative comparison of transcriptomes from single HSCs from young, and aged, BM show that both the proportion of platelet-biased HSCs, and their level of transcriptional platelet priming, increases with age. Therefore, platelet-biased HSCs, as well as their increased prevalence and elevated transcriptional platelet priming during ageing, are conserved between human and murine hematopoiesis.


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