residual disease
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Rafael Alonso ◽  
Juan José Lahuerta

The development of new resources for a more accurate diagnosis and response assessment in multiple myeloma has been a long process for decades, mainly since the middle of the 20th century. During this time, the succession of technical advances has run parallel to the better knowledge of disease biology and the availability of novel therapeutic strategies. The cornerstone of standardized criteria to uniformly evaluate the disease response in myeloma dates back to the 1990s when the key role of complete remission was established. Since then, different updates have been implemented according to available scientific evidences not always without certain controversies. The progressive improvements in survival results of myeloma patients and the growing quality of responses due to the novel therapies have led to the need of developing new tools for better monitoring of tumor burden. In this way, the concept of minimal residual disease and its key value based on the prognostic significance and the clinical relevance has been consolidated during the last years, overcoming the value of conventional response criteria or classical adverse prognosis markers. Nevertheless, its precise role in the clinical management of myeloma patients to detect early treatment failure and trigger early rescue strategies is still pending to be defined. In this review, we revisit the major milestones in the understanding of tumor reduction in multiple myeloma until the most recent imaging techniques or liquid biopsy approaches, including a critical view of conventional response criteria, whose backbone has remained unchanged during the last 20 years.

Eva Giné ◽  
Fátima de la Cruz ◽  
Ana Jiménez Ubieto ◽  
Javier López Jimenez ◽  
Alejandro Martín García-Sancho ◽  

PURPOSE The need for an individualized management of indolent clinical forms in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is increasingly recognized. We hypothesized that a tailored treatment with ibrutinib in combination with rituximab (IR) could obtain significant responses in these patients. METHODS This is a multicenter single-arm, open-label, phase II study with a two-stage design conducted in 12 Spanish GELTAMO sites ( identifier: NCT02682641 ). Previously untreated MCL patients with indolent clinical forms defined by the following criteria were eligible: no disease-related symptoms, nonblastoid variants, Ki-67 < 30%, and largest tumor diameter ≤ 3 cm. Both leukemic non-nodal and nodal subtypes were recruited. Patients received ibrutinib 560 mg once daily and a total of eight doses of rituximab 375 mg/m2. Ibrutinib could be discontinued after 2 years in the case of sustained undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD). The primary end point was the complete response (CR) rate achieved after 12 cycles according to Lugano criteria. RESULTS Fifty patients with MCL (male 66%; median age 65 years) were enrolled. After 12 cycles of treatment, 42 (84%; 95% CI, 74 to 94) patients had an overall response, including 40 (80%; 95% CI, 69 to 91) with CR. Moreover, undetectable MRD in peripheral blood was achieved in 87% (95% CI, 77 to 97) of cases. At 2 years, 24 of 35 evaluable patients (69%) could discontinue ibrutinib because of undetectable MRD. Four patients had disease progression; three were non-nodal MCL and carried high genomic complexity and TP53 mutations at enrollment. No unexpected toxicity was seen except one patient with severe aplastic anemia. CONCLUSION Frontline IR combination achieves a high rate of CRs and undetectable MRD in indolent clinical forms of MCL. Discontinuation seems appropriate in cases with undetectable MRD, except for TP53-mutated cases.

Hemato ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-81
Emilie Arnault Carneiro ◽  
Filipa Barahona ◽  
Carolina Pestana ◽  
Cristina João

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second deadliest hematological cancer. Despite the enormous innovation on MM treatment in the last decades, still 48% of patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. MM diagnosis and therapeutic strategy mainly rely on direct bone marrow (BM) assessment. Given the MM heterogeneity, BM biopsies do not accurately reflect the whole disease status, hampering accurate disease prognosis. Moreover, biopsies are painful and invasive procedures, highlighting the need for non-invasive and more accurate source of biomarkers. Liquid biopsies are promising sources of biomarkers that may overcome these limitations. Peripheral blood carries circulating myeloma components that are being extensively explored since the last few years as an alternative to BM aspirates. These include circulating tumor cells (CTC), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), and extracellular vesicles containing miRNA and proteins. The current review summarizes scientific evidence establishing BM as a gold standard for the diagnosis, prognosis, and evaluation of minimal residual disease. We discuss the last advances regarding cfDNA and CTC biomarkers from peripheral blood in patients with MM as well as the statistical validations. This paper addresses the technological hurdles associated with liquid biopsies and examines the missing steps for their inclusion into the clinical practice.

Anna Vidal ◽  
Torben Redmer

Clonal evolution and cellular plasticity are the genetic and non-genetic driving forces of tumor heterogeneity that in turn determines the tumor cell response towards therapeutic drugs. Several lines of evidence suggest that therapeutic interventions foster the selection of drug resistant neural crest stem-like cells (NCSCs) that establish minimal residual disease (MRD) in melanoma. Here we established a dual reporter system enabling the tracking of NGFR expression and mRNA stability, providing insights into the maintenance of NCSC-states. We observed that the transcriptional reporter that contained a 1kb fragment of the human NGFR promoter was activated only in a minor subset (0.72&plusmn;0.49%, range 0.3-1.5) and ~2-4% of A375 melanoma cells revealed stable NGFR mRNA. The combination of both reporters provided insights into phenotype switching and revealed that both cellular subsets gave rise to cellular heterogeneity. Moreover, whole transcriptome profiling and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the minor cellular subset revealed hypoxia-associated programs that might serve as potential drivers of an in vitro switching of NGFR-associated phenotypes and relapse of post-BRAF inhibitor treated tumors. Concordantly, we observed that the minor cellular subset increased in response to dabrafenib over time. In summary, our reporter-based approach provided insights into plasticity and identified a cellular subset that might be responsible for the establishment of MRD in melanoma.

Michaela Kotrova ◽  
Johannes Koopmann ◽  
Heiko Trautmann ◽  
Nael Alakel ◽  
Joachim Beck ◽  

Persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction/consolidation therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the leading cause of relapse. The GMALL 07/2003 study used MRD detection by RQ-PCR of clonal immune gene rearrangements with 1x10-4 as discriminating cut-off: levels ≥1x10-4 define molecular failure and MRD-negativity with an assay sensitivity of at least 1x10-4 defines complete molecular response. The clinical relevance of MRD results not fitting in these categories is unclear and termed "molecular not evaluable" (MolNE) towards MRD-based treatment decisions. Within the GMALL 07/03 study, 1019 consecutive bone marrow samples after first consolidation were evaluated for MRD. Patients with complete molecular response had significantly better outcome (five-year overall survival, 5y-OS=85±2%, n=603; five-year disease-free survival, 5y-DFS=73±2%, n=599) compared to patients with molecular failure 5y-OS=40±3%, n=238; 5y-DFS=29±3%, n=208), with MolNE patients in-between (5y-OS=66±4%, 5y-DFS=52±4%, n=178). Of MolNE samples re-analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS), patients with undetectable NGS-MRD (n=44; 5y-OS=88±5%, 5y-DFS=70±7%) had significantly better outcome than those with positive NGS-MRD (n=42; 5y-OS=37±8%, 5y-DFS=33±8%). MolNE MRD results are not just borderline values with questionable relevance, but form an intermediate risk group, assignment of which can be further improved by NGS.

Chemotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Natalia Cenfra ◽  
Gianfranco Lapietra ◽  
Salvatore Perrone ◽  
Maria Teresa Voso ◽  
Mariadomenica Divona ◽  

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia in adults. In spite of the most recent discoveries about the molecular landscape of this disease, the treatment of elderly and unfit young patients continues to be a great challenge. The hypomethylating agents (HMA) still represent an effective therapeutic option for these categories, especially for the low-risk subgroups. We report the case of a young patient with NPM1<sup>mut</sup>-AML who underwent a first cycle of intensive induction treatment, achieving a complete remission, but suffered from a serious life-threatening neurologic toxicity. Due to the ineligibility to further lines of intensive chemotherapy, we decided to consolidate the response with azacitidine, administered according to the regular schedule. The minimal residual disease (MRD), monitored through the NPM1 mutation at diagnosis, progressively decreased and became undetectable after 36 cycles of hypomethylating therapy. After 1 year from discontinuation of azacitidine, MRD remains undetectable. Therefore, HMA might still represent a feasible and effective option for patients with low-risk AML, especially when the standard chemotherapy is not indicated, or as maintenance therapy in nontransplantable patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alba Rodríguez-García ◽  
María Linares ◽  
María Luz Morales ◽  
Sophie Allain-Maillet ◽  
Nicolas Mennesson ◽  

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable plasma cell malignancy. While its origin is enigmatic, an association with infectious pathogens including hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been suggested. Here we report nine patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or MM with previous HCV infection, six of whom received antiviral treatment. We studied the evolution of the gammopathy disease, according to anti-HCV treatment and antigen specificity of purified monoclonal immunoglobulin, determined using the INNO-LIA™ HCV Score assay, dot-blot assays, and a multiplex infectious antigen microarray. The monoclonal immunoglobulin from 6/9 patients reacted against HCV. Four of these patients received antiviral treatment and had a better evolution than untreated patients. Following antiviral treatment, one patient with MM in third relapse achieved complete remission with minimal residual disease negativity. For two patients who did not receive antiviral treatment, disease progressed. For the two patients whose monoclonal immunoglobulin did not react against HCV, antiviral treatment was not effective for MGUS or MM disease. Our results suggest a causal relationship between HCV infection and MGUS and MM progression. When HCV was eliminated, chronic antigen-stimulation disappeared, allowing control of clonal plasma cells. This opens new possibilities of treatment for MGUS and myeloma.

Ujjwal Gorsi ◽  
Rishabh Jain ◽  
Akash Bansal ◽  
Naveen Kalra ◽  
Mandeep Kang ◽  

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to report short-term outcomes of cryoablation of early-stage renal tumors (T1a and T1b) at a tertiary hospital in India. Methods This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent cryoablation for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from November 2018 to June 2020. Cryoablation was performed under combined ultrasound and computed tomography guidance using a helium-argon cryoablation system. Tumor number, size, location, nephrometry score, relationship of the tumor with pelvicalyceal system, and adjacent organs were tabulated, and technical and clinical success evaluated. Early and late recurrence and complications were also assessed. Results Eleven patients (median age: 62 years) with 11 tumors underwent cryoablation. The mean tumor size was 2.58 cm (range: 1.62–5.62 cm) with 10 lesions being T1a and one lesion T1b. Tissue sampling was done in 9/11 patients, 3 were papillary RCC and the rest, clear cell RCC. In two patients, the tumor was completely endophytic, three patients had partially endophytic tumors while 6 patients had exophytic lesions. The median nephrometry score was 6 (range: 4–11, Mode 4). Technical success was achieved in all patients. Complete response was achieved in 81% (9/11) of the patients at 1-month follow-up. Median follow-up period was 6 months. Two patients showed residual disease on follow-up imaging at 1 and 3 months, respectively. Conclusion Cryoablation is a promising, relatively new minimally invasive therapy for treating small renal tumors in India. It is safe, technically feasible, and shows excellent short-term efficacy.

Ajlan Al Zaki ◽  
Lei Feng ◽  
Grace Watson ◽  
Sairah Ahmed ◽  
Haleigh Mistry ◽  

About 70% of patients with large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) who achieve a partial response (PR) or a stable disease (SD) on day 30 (D30) PET-CT scan progress, but predictive factors of progression are unknown. This a retrospective study of patients with LBCL treated with axi-cel at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 01/2018 and 02/2021. Among 50 patients with D30 PR/SD, 13 (26%) converted to complete response (CR). Among 95 patients with D30 CR, 72 (76%) remained in CR. On univariate analysis, the only day -5 characteristic associated with conversion from D30 PR/SD to subsequent CR was a higher platelet count (p=0.05). The only D30 factor associated with conversion from D30 PR/SD to subsequent CR was lower D30 SUVmax (p&lt;0.001), and all patients with and D30 SUVmax ≥10 progressed. After a median follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference in median progression-free survival was observed when comparing patients who converted from D30 PR/SD to subsequent CR to those who had been in CR since D30 (p=0.19). Novel predictive and prognostic markers based on tissue biopsy and non-invasive diagnostic assays are needed to more effectively identify these patients and characterize the biology of their residual disease.

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