programmed death
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 953-957
Ting Ding ◽  
Qian Song ◽  
Yanjun Xu ◽  
Qiya Liu

Chemokines and immunomodulatory factors involve in tumor development. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is considered to start from dendritic cell infiltration and then produce immunomodulatory factors. In this study, CXCR4 and PD-L1 biomarkers were used to explore their prognostic role in PTC survival. Confocal microscopy detected the transfection efficiency in tumor cells. 42 PTC patients and thyroiditis patients (control) were enrolled to measure the expressions of CXCR4 and PD-L1. Multi-factor analysis analyzed the effect of combined CXCR4 and PD-L1 expression on ROC. The two groups had no differences in the baseline characteristics. CTXCR4 and PD-L1 level in PTC patients was significantly higher than control. CXCR4 was lowly expressed in thyroid cancer tissue and PD-L1 was highly expressed in serological samples. Compared with single measurement, the combined detection of CXCR4 and PD-L1 showed more ROC area. In conclusion, reduced CXCR4 and increased PD-L1 level is found in thyroid cancer and their level might be used as predictive markers for PTC to improve the curative effect.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 435
Arsela Prelaj ◽  
Mattia Boeri ◽  
Alessandro Robuschi ◽  
Roberto Ferrara ◽  
Claudia Proto ◽  

(1) Background: In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) remains the only biomarker for candidate patients to immunotherapy (IO). This study aimed at using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) tools to improve response and efficacy predictions in aNSCLC patients treated with IO. (2) Methods: Real world data and the blood microRNA signature classifier (MSC) were used. Patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to determine if the overall survival of the patients was likely to be shorter or longer than 24 months from baseline IO. (3) Results: One-hundred sixty-four out of 200 patients (i.e., only those ones with PD-L1 data available) were considered in the model, 73 (44.5%) were R and 91 (55.5%) NR. Overall, the best model was the linear regression (RL) and included 5 features. The model predicting R/NR of patients achieved accuracy ACC = 0.756, F1 score F1 = 0.722, and area under the ROC curve AUC = 0.82. LR was also the best-performing model in predicting patients with long survival (24 months OS), achieving ACC = 0.839, F1 = 0.908, and AUC = 0.87. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the integration of multifactorial data provided by ML techniques is a useful tool to select NSCLC patients as candidates for IO.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0009192
Michael Weingartner ◽  
Simon Stücheli ◽  
Fadi Jebbawi ◽  
Bruno Gottstein ◽  
Guido Beldi ◽  

Background Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a rising zoonotic disease in the northern hemisphere. Treatment of this fatal disease is limited to chemotherapy using benzimidazoles and surgical intervention, with frequent disease recurrence in cases without radical surgery. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying E. multilocularis infections and host-parasite interactions ultimately aids developing novel therapeutic options. This study explored an involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum-stress (ERS) during E. multilocularis infection in mice. Methods E. multilocularis- and mock-infected C57BL/6 mice were subdivided into vehicle, albendazole (ABZ) and anti-programmed death ligand 1 (αPD-L1) treated groups. To mimic a chronic infection, treatments of mice started six weeks post i.p. infection and continued for another eight weeks. Liver tissue was then collected to examine inflammatory cytokines and the expression of UPR- and ERS-related genes. Results E. multilocularis infection led to an upregulation of UPR- and ERS-related proteins in the liver, including ATF6, CHOP, GRP78, ERp72, H6PD and calreticulin, whilst PERK and its target eIF2α were not affected, and IRE1α and ATF4 were downregulated. ABZ treatment in E. multilocularis infected mice reversed, or at least tended to reverse, these protein expression changes to levels seen in mock-infected mice. Furthermore, ABZ treatment reversed the elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ in the liver of infected mice. Similar to ABZ, αPD-L1 immune-treatment tended to reverse the increased CHOP and decreased ATF4 and IRE1α expression levels. Conclusions and significance AE caused chronic inflammation, UPR activation and ERS in mice. The E. multilocularis-induced inflammation and consecutive ERS was ameliorated by ABZ and αPD-L1 treatment, indicating their effectiveness to inhibit parasite proliferation and downregulate its activity status. Neither ABZ nor αPD-L1 themselves affected UPR in control mice. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between inflammation, UPR and ERS, and if these pathways offer potential for improved therapies of patients with AE.

Reinhard Dummer ◽  
Georgina V. Long ◽  
Caroline Robert ◽  
Hussein A. Tawbi ◽  
Keith T. Flaherty ◽  

PURPOSE Preclinical data suggest the combination of an anti–programmed death receptor 1 antibody plus dabrafenib and trametinib to have superior antitumor activity compared with dabrafenib plus trametinib alone. These observations are supported by translational evidence suggesting that immune checkpoint inhibitors plus targeted therapy may improve treatment outcomes in patients with BRAF V600–mutant metastatic melanoma. COMBI-i is a phase III trial evaluating spartalizumab, an anti–programmed death receptor 1 antibody, in combination with dabrafenib and trametinib (sparta-DabTram), versus placebo plus dabrafenib and trametinib (placebo-DabTram) in patients with BRAF V600–mutant unresectable or metastatic melanoma. METHODS Patients received spartalizumab 400 mg intravenously every 4 weeks plus dabrafenib 150 mg orally twice daily and trametinib 2 mg orally once daily or placebo-DabTram. Participants were age ≥ 18 years with unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600–mutant melanoma. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Overall survival was a key secondary end point ( identifier: NCT02967692 ). RESULTS At data cutoff (July 1, 2020), the median progression-free survival was 16.2 months (95% CI, 12.7 to 23.9 months) in the sparta-DabTram arm versus 12.0 months (95% CI, 10.2 to 15.4 months) in the placebo-DabTram arm (hazard ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.66 to 1.03]; P = .042 [one-sided; nonsignificant]). The objective response rates were 69% (183 of 267 patients) versus 64% (170 of 265 patients), respectively. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 55% (146 of 267) of patients in the sparta-DabTram arm and 33% (88 of 264) in the placebo-DabTram arm. CONCLUSION The study did not meet its primary end point; broad first-line use of sparta-DabTram is not supported by these results. Further biomarker-driven investigation may identify patient subpopulations who could benefit from checkpoint inhibitor plus targeted therapy combinations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Liting Zhong ◽  
Xiaoyu Liu ◽  
Zelei Li ◽  
Xuebing Zhang ◽  
Yuli Wang ◽  

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) with proficient mismatch repair (pMMR)/microsatellite stable (MSS) is associated with limited response to programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor monotherapy. Limited data of PD-1 blockade combined with anti-angiogenic therapy in GBC are reported. One recurrent GBC patient with pMMR/MSS was treated with camrelizumab plus apatinib. After 4 cycles of combination therapy, the patient achieved a durable complete response with manageable toxicity. The next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that tumor mutation burden (TMB) was 7.26 mutants/Mb and PD-L1 expression was 10% (tumor proportion score) and 20% (immune proportion score). This case suggests that camrelizumab in combination with apatinib may be an effective treatment option for GBC patients with pMMR/MSS status, who have moderate expression of TMB and PD-L1. Additionally, TMB and PD-L1 expression may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting PD-1 inhibitor response of GBC. Furthermore, this needs to be verified in future studies.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Ping Liu ◽  
Ruoxu Chen ◽  
Xudong Zhang ◽  
Ruiting Fu ◽  
Lin Tao ◽  

Abstract Background High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is highly heterogeneous, and although many studies have been conducted to identify high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtypes that are sensitive to immunotherapy, no precise molecular subtype has been proposed to date. Immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoints are highly correlated with immunotherapy. Here, we investigated immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoint values for prognosis and precise immunotherapy for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma based on molecular subtype classification. Results “High antigen-presenting cells infiltration molecular subtype of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma” was identified in immune cell infiltration profiles. Each of the three immune cell infiltration clusters (A, B, and C) demonstrated distinct immune cell characterization, with immune cell infiltration cluster C exhibiting high antigen-presenting cell infiltration, improved prognosis, and higher sensitivity to immunotherapy. Programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 has a prognostic and predictive role that can help classify molecular subtypes. Conclusions Our findings redefined a unique molecular subtype of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, suggesting that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients with higher antigen-presenting cell infiltration and programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 expression can benefit from precise immunotherapy.

Chang Liu ◽  
Zecheng Jiang ◽  
Zhongjie Pan ◽  
Liang Yang

Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory vascular disease, which is an important pathological basis for inducing a variety of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. As a kind of inflammatory cells, macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in atherosclerotic plaques and participate in the whole process of atherosclerosis and are the most abundant immune cells in atherosclerotic plaques. Recent studies have shown that programmed cell death plays a critical role in the progression of many diseases. At present, it is generally believed that the programmed death of macrophages can affect the development and stability of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques, and the intervention of macrophage death may become the target of atherosclerotic therapy. This article reviews the role of macrophage programmed cell death in the progression of atherosclerosis and the latest therapeutic strategies targeting macrophage death within plaques.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Jialu Xu ◽  
Qingle Ma ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Ziying Fei ◽  
Yifei Sun ◽  

AbstractMicrobe-based cancer immunotherapy has recently emerged as a hot topic for cancer treatment. However, serious limitations remain including infection associated side-effect and unsatisfactory outcomes in clinic trials. Here, we fabricate different sizes of nano-formulations derived from yeast cell wall (YCW NPs) by differential centrifugation. The induction of anticancer immunity of our formulations appears to inversely correlate with their size due to the ability to accumulate in tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN). Moreover, we use a percolation model to explain their distribution behavior toward TDLN. The abundance and functional orientation of each effector component are significantly improved not only in the microenvironment in tumor but also in the TDLN following small size YCW NPs treatment. In combination with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade, we demonstrate anticancer efficiency in melanoma-challenged mice. We delineate potential strategy to target immunosuppressive microenvironment by microbe-based nanoparticles and highlight the role of size effect in microbe-based immune therapeutics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 301-308
Sun-Hee Kim ◽  
Hee-Jin Jeong

Immunocytokines, antibody-cytokine fusion proteins, have the potential to improve the therapeutic index of cytokines by delivering the cytokine to the site of localized tumor cells using antibodies. In this study, we produced a recombinant anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) scFv, an antibody fragment against PD-L1 combined with a Neo2/15, which is an engineered interleukin with superior function using an E. coli expression system. We expressed the fusion protein in a soluble form and purified it, resulting in high yield and purity. The high PD-L1-binding efficiency of the fusion protein was confirmed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting the application of this immunocytokine as a cancer-related therapeutic agent.

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