Incidence Rates
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Young Park ◽  
Seoung Jun Byun ◽  
Se Joon Woo ◽  
Kyu Hyung Park ◽  
Sang Jun Park

Abstract Background To determine the 12-year incidence of and trends in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) requiring surgery in Korea. Methods This was a nationwide, population-based, retrospective study. We identified 53,179 patients with incident RRD requiring surgery using the Korean National Health Claims Database from 2004 to 2015. We estimated the crude incidence rates and age- and sex-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years in each year during the study period. A joinpoint regression analysis was performed to determine the trend. Results The average annual incidence rate was 9.78 (95% CI: 9.70–9.86). Male patients showed an incidence rate (10.68 [95% CI: 10.57–10.80]) 1.20 times that of female patients (8.87 [95% CI: 8.76–8.98]). The incidence showed a bimodal distribution; the highest peak was in the 60–64 year age group (23.77 [95% CI: 23.18–24.35]) and the second peak was in the 20–24 year age group (7.68 [95% CI: 7.41–7.95]). An increasing trend of RRD incidence was observed in the total population throughout the study period using joinpoint analysis (annual percentage change [APC], 2.05; 95% CI: 0.7–3.4). The increasing trend was more prominent among individuals aged under 50 years (APC, 3.44; 95% CI: 2.3–4.6), while among those aged 50 years or above, the increasing incidence was observed only in male patients. Conclusions In Korea, the incidence of RRD has increased recently. People in the < 50 year age group accounted for the major part of this significant increase, which is related to the increasing incidence of myopia in the young generation in Asia.


Angiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 000331972110501
Author(s):  
François-Xavier Lapébie ◽  
Vanina Bongard ◽  
Philippe Lacroix ◽  
Victor Aboyans ◽  
Joël Constans ◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of patients according to diabetes status, during a 1-year follow-up after hospital admission for lower extremity artery disease, in the prospective COPART (COhorte de Patients ARTériopathes) registry. Inclusion criteria were intermittent claudication, ischemic rest pain, tissue loss, or acute limb ischemia, with radiological and hemodynamic confirmation. Among 2494 patients, 1235 (49.5%) had diabetes. Incidence rates for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were 18.0/100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.4–21.0) for the diabetes group and 11.1/100 person-years (95% CI, 9.2–13.4) for the non-diabetes group. Incidence rates of all-cause mortality were 29.8/100 person-years (95% CI, 26.5–33.4) for the diabetes group and 19.7/100 person-years (95% CI, 17.2–22.7) for the non-diabetes group. Incidence rates of major limb amputation were 24.2/100 person-years (95% CI, 21.1–27.8) for the diabetes group and 11.6/100 person-years (95% CI, 9.6–14.0) for the non-diabetes group. Diabetes was associated with MACE, adjusted hazard ratio 1.60 (95% CI, 1.16–2.22), and all-cause mortality, unadjusted HR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.24–1.78). In the multivariate analysis, diabetes was no longer associated with major amputation, adjusted HR 1.15 (95% CI, .87–1.51). Patients hospitalized for LEAD with diabetes had a higher risk of MACE than those without diabetes.


Author(s):  
Anya Burton ◽  
Vinay K. Balachandrakumar ◽  
Robert J. Driver ◽  
Daniela Tataru ◽  
Lizz Paley ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence, management and survival across England were examined to determine if geographical inequalities exist. Method 15,468 HCC cases diagnosed 2010–2016 were included. Age-standardised incidence rates, net survival and proportions receiving potentially curative treatment and presenting through each route to diagnosis adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex and area-based deprivation quintile, were calculated overall and by Cancer Alliance. Results HCC incidence rates increased in men from 6.2 per 100,000 in 2010 to 8.8 in 2016, and in women from 1.5 to 2.2. The highest incidence rates, found in parts of the North of England and London, were nearly double the lowest. The adjusted proportion presenting as an emergency ranged 27–41% across Cancer Alliances. Odds increased with increasing deprivation quintile and age. Only one in five patients received potentially curative treatment (range 15–28%) and odds decreased with increasing deprivation and age. One-year survival in 2013–2016 ranged 38–53%. Conclusion This population-based, nationwide analysis demonstrates clear differences in HCC incidence, management and survival across England. It highlights socioeconomic-associated variation and the need for improvement in early diagnosis and curative treatment of HCC. This research should assist policymakers, service providers and clinicians to identify regions where additional training, services and resources would be best directed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Jinling Yan ◽  
Yongli Liu ◽  
Ruifen Jiao ◽  
Meixiang Li ◽  
Liqin Zhao

The study aims to explore the effect of low-frequency electric pulse technique combined with carboprost methylate suppositories on recovery of gastrointestinal function and postoperative complications of patients with scarred uterus undergoing secondary cesarean section (C-section). The clinical data of 120 patients with scarred uterus undergoing secondary C-section treated in our hospital from February 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and the patients were equally divided into experimental and control groups according to their admission order, where each group included 60 patients. After the operation, patients in the control group received routine nursing and conducted breastfeeding, and carboprost methylate suppositories were used for postoperative hemostasis. Those in the experimental group received low-frequency electric pulse technique for comprehensive treatment to compare their coagulation function indicators, recovery of gastrointestinal function, incidence rates of postoperative complications, and involution of uterus. No significant between-group differences in patients’ general information such as gestational weeks, gravidity, and number of times receiving C-section were observed ( P > 0.05 ). Compared with the control group after the operation, patients in the experimental group obtained significantly better coagulation function indicators ( P < 0.001 ) and presented better gastrointestinal function recovery ( P < 0.001 ), significantly lower incidence rates of postpartum hemorrhage, retention of urine, deep venous thrombosis of lower limb, rupture of uterus, and endometrial cavity fluid ( P < 0.05 ), and significantly better involution of uterus ( P < 0.001 ). In conclusion, combining low-frequency electric pulse technique with carboprost methylate suppositories can lower the incidence rates of postoperative complications for patients with scarred uterus undergoing secondary C-section, improve their coagulation function, promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function, and present the desirable involution of uterus, which should be promoted in practice.


Author(s):  
Benjamin Gallo Marin ◽  
David X. Zheng ◽  
Andres Amaya ◽  
Daniel Marin Gamboa ◽  
Fabio S. Frech ◽  
...  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 5894
Author(s):  
Melissa Chalada ◽  
Charmaine A. Ramlogan-Steel ◽  
Bijay P. Dhungel ◽  
Amanda Y. Goh ◽  
Samuel Gardiner ◽  
...  

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the second-most-common melanoma in humans and has a high age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) in Australia. Regional patterns of UM ASRs in Australia are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine and compare UM ASRs in two geographically disparate eastern states, Queensland (QLD) and Victoria (VIC), by using cancer registry data that was obtained from 2001 to 2013. World-standardized UM ASRs and incidence-rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Higher UM ASR was also observed in anterior UM compared to posterior UM ASR. UM ASR remained unchanged from 2001 to 2013 in QLD but decreased in VIC. A south-to-north latitude trend in UM ASR along the east of Australia is weakly evident, and rural populations have higher UM ASRs than major city populations in both states. Differences in ultraviolent radiation (UVR) susceptibility, indigenous populations, social behaviours, chemical exposure, and socioeconomic status could all be contributing to differences in UM rates between QLD and VIC and between rural compared to major city areas. It is possible that a minority of cases in QLD and VIC might be prevented by sun-protective behaviours. This is important, because these findings suggest that QLD, which is already known to have one of the highest cutaneous melanoma (CM) ASRs in the world, also has one of the highest UM ASRs.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Akira Endo

Abstract In a paper recently published in Nature Medicine, Fukumoto et al. tried to assess the government-led school closure policy during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. They compared the reported incidence rates between municipalities that had and had not implemented school closure in selected periods from March–May 2020, where they rigorously matched for potential confounders, and claimed that they found no causal effect on the incidence rates of COVID-19. However, the effective sample size (ESS) of their dataset had been substantially reduced in the process of matching due to imbalanced covariates between the treatment (i.e. with closure) and control (without) municipalities, which led to the wide uncertainty in the estimates. That said, the study title "No causal effect…" is a rather strong statement because the results are also consistent with a strong mitigating effect of school closure on incidence of COVID-19.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Martin Rotenberg ◽  
Andrew Tuck ◽  
Kelly K. Anderson ◽  
Kwame McKenzie

Abstract Background Studies have shown mixed results regarding social capital and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, and this has yet to be studied in North America. We sought to examine the relationship between neighbourhood-level marginalisation, social capital, and the incidence of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in Toronto, Canada. Methods We used a retrospective population-based cohort to identify incident cases of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder over a 10 year period and accounted for neighbourhood-level marginalisation and a proxy indicator of neighbourhood social capital. Mixed Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs). Results In the cohort (n = 649 020) we identified 4841 incident cases of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. A 27% variation in incidence was observed between neighbourhoods. All marginalisation dimensions, other than ethnic concentration, were associated with incidence. Compared to areas with low social capital, areas with intermediate social capital in the second [aIRR = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.33] and third (aIRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.08–1.40) quintiles had elevated incidence rates after accounting for marginalisation. There was a higher risk associated with the intermediate levels of social capital (aIRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.00–1.39) when analysed in only the females in the cohort, but the CI includes the possibility of a null effect. Conclusions The risk of developing schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in Toronto varies by neighbourhood and is associated with socioenvironmental exposures. Social capital was not linearly associated with risk, and risk differs by sex and social capital quintile. Future research should examine these relationships with different forms of social capital and examine how known individual-level risk factors impact these findings.


Critical Care ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lauro Damonti ◽  
Andreas Kronenberg ◽  
Jonas Marschall ◽  
Philipp Jent ◽  
Rami Sommerstein ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Evidence about the impact of the pandemic of COVID-19 on the incidence rates of blood cultures contaminations and bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) remains scant. The objective of this study was to investigate the nationwide epidemiology of positive blood cultures drawn in ICUs during the first two pandemic waves of COVID-19 in Switzerland. Methods We analyzed data on positive blood cultures among ICU patients, prospectively collected through a nationwide surveillance system (ANRESIS), from March 30, 2020, to May 31, 2021, a 14-month timeframe that included a first wave of COVID-19, which affected the French and Italian-speaking regions, an interim period (summer 2020) and a second wave that affected the entire country. We used the number of ICU patient-days provided by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health as denominator to calculate incidence rates of blood culture contaminations and bloodstream infections (ICU-BSI). Incidence rate ratios comparing the interim period with the second wave were determined by segmented Poisson regression models. Results A total of 1099 blood culture contaminations and 1616 ICU-BSIs were identified in 52 ICUs during the study. Overall, more episodes of blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSI were observed during the pandemic waves, compared to the interim period. The proportions of blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSI were positively associated with the ICU occupancy rate, which was higher during the COVID-19 waves. During the more representative second wave (versus interim period), we observed an increased incidence of blood culture contaminations (IRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.16–2.12) and ICU-BSI (IRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03–1.39). Conclusions An increase in blood culture contaminations and ICU-BSIs was observed during the second COVID-19 pandemic wave, especially in months when the ICU burden of COVID-19 patients was high.


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