cardiometabolic risk
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2022 ◽  
Vol 294 ◽  
pp. 118628
Yu-xiang Xu ◽  
Yang Yu ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Yu-hui Wan ◽  
Pu-yu Su ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Antonio Nicolucci ◽  
Claudio Maffeis

AbstractThe dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has become a major public health problem. Obesity in children and young adults is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Obesity during adolescence represents a strong predictor of obesity and higher mortality in adulthood. Due to the serious implications of obesity in adolescents, effective treatments are urgently needed. Lifestyle interventions represent the recommended therapy. Nevertheless, real world data show that the majority of adolescents do not achieve weight loss in the long term, and are reluctant to participate in lifestyle interventions. Pharmacological treatment is recommended if a formal lifestyle modification program fails to limit weight gain or to improve comorbidities. However, until 2020 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) had not approved any pharmacotherapeutic agents for obesity in pediatric patients. On April 2021, EMA has authorized the use of Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analog, for the treatment of obesity in adolescents (12–17 years). The efficacy and safety of Liraglutide were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind trial, enrolling 251 adolescents. After 56 weeks, a reduction in BMI of at least 5% was observed in 43.3% of participants in the liraglutide group vs. 18.7% in the placebo group, and a reduction in BMI of at least 10% was observed in 26.1 and 8.1%, respectively. Gastrointestinal events were the events most frequently reported with liraglutide. Bariatric surgery represents another effective treatment for adolescents with severe obesity, with sustained benefits on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, long-term safety and effectiveness data in adolescents are still scarce. Risks of bariatric surgery include the need for additional abdominal surgical procedures and specific micronutrient deficiencies. Hopefully, new pharmacological treatments in addition to lifestyle interventions will offer more chances of success.

Marilyn L. Kwan ◽  
Richard K. Cheng ◽  
Carlos Iribarren ◽  
Romain Neugebauer ◽  
Jamal S. Rana ◽  

PURPOSE The incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors in breast cancer (BC) survivors has not been well described. Thus, we compared risk of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in women with and without BC. METHODS Women with invasive BC diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) were identified and matched 1:5 to noncancer controls on birth year, race, and ethnicity. Cumulative incidence rates of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia were estimated with competing risk of overall death. Subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) were estimated by Fine and Gray regression, adjusted for cardiovascular disease–related risk factors, and stratified by treatment and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS A total of 14,942 BC cases and 74,702 matched controls were identified with mean age 61.2 years and 65% non-Hispanic White. Compared with controls, BC cases had higher cumulative incidence rates of hypertension (10.9% v 8.9%) and diabetes (2.1% v 1.7%) after 2 years, with higher diabetes incidence persisting after 10 years (9.3% v 8.8%). In multivariable models, cases had higher risk of diabetes (sHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.26) versus controls. Cases treated with chemotherapy (sHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.38), left-sided radiation (sHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.48), or endocrine therapy (sHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.34) continued to have higher diabetes risk. Hypertension risk was higher for cases receiving left-sided radiation (sHR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.21) or endocrine therapy (sHR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.16). Normal-weight (BMI < 24.9 kg/m2) cases had higher risks overall and within treatment subgroups versus controls. CONCLUSION BC survivors at KPNC experienced elevated risks of diabetes and hypertension compared with women without BC depending on treatments received and BMI. Future studies should examine strategies for cardiometabolic risk factor prevention in BC survivors.

2022 ◽  
Aboma Motuma ◽  
Tesfaye Gobena ◽  
Kedir Teji Roba ◽  
Yemane Berhane ◽  
Alemayehu Worku

Abstract This study aimed to examine the associations of sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk markers among working adults in Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,200 participants. Data were collected using the World Health Organization NCD STEPS survey instrument, and the sedentary behavior questionnaire. The biochemical parameters were analyzed by using the Mindray BS-200 chemistry analyzer. STATA version 16.1 software was used for analysis. The associations between sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk markers controlling confounders were examined using linear regression models. An adjusted coefficient (β) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to report the results. P-value < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. One hour per day increases in total sedentary time increases the average body mass index (β = 0.61kg/m2: 95% CI: 0.49, 0.71), waist circumference (β = 1.48cm: 95% CI:1.14-1.82), diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.87mmHg: 95% CI: 0.56-1.18), systolic blood pressure (β = 0.95mmHg: 95% CI: 0.45, 1.48), triglycerides (β = 7.07mg/dl: 95% CI: 4.01-10.14), total cholesterol (β = 3.52mg/dl: 95% CI: 2.02-5.02), fasting plasma glucose (β = 4.15mg/dl: 95% CI: 5.31-4.98) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 2.14mg/dl: 95% CI: 0.96-3.33). Long sedentary time is significantly associated with cardiometabolic risk markers. Interventions to reduce sedentary time to decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases among working adults.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Ester Cerin ◽  
Anthony Barnett ◽  
Jonathan E. Shaw ◽  
Erika Martino ◽  
Luke D. Knibbs ◽  

Population ageing and urbanisation are global phenomena that call for an understanding of the impacts of features of the urban environment on older adults’ cognitive function. Because neighbourhood characteristics that can potentially have opposite effects on cognitive function are interdependent, they need to be considered in conjunction. Using data from an Australian national sample of 4141 adult urban dwellers, we examined the extent to which the associations of interrelated built and natural environment features and ambient air pollution with cognitive function are explained by cardiometabolic risk factors relevant to cognitive health. All examined environmental features were directly and/or indirectly related to cognitive function via other environmental features and/or cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings suggest that dense, interconnected urban environments with access to parks, blue spaces and low levels of air pollution may benefit cognitive health through cardiometabolic risk factors and other mechanisms not captured in this study. This study also highlights the need for a particularly fine-grained characterisation of the built environment in research on cognitive function, which would enable the differentiation of the positive effects of destination-rich neighbourhoods on cognition via participation in cognition-enhancing activities from the negative effects of air pollutants typically present in dense, destination-rich urban areas.

PLoS Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. e1003636
Linda M. O’Keeffe ◽  
Joshua A. Bell ◽  
Kate N. O’Neill ◽  
Matthew A. Lee ◽  
Mark Woodward ◽  

Background Sex differences in cardiometabolic disease risk are commonly observed across the life course but are poorly understood and may be due to different associations of adiposity with cardiometabolic risk in females and males. We examined whether adiposity is differently associated with cardiometabolic trait levels in females and males at 3 different life stages. Methods and findings Data were from 2 generations (offspring, Generation 1 [G1] born in 1991/1992 and their parents, Generation 0 [G0]) of a United Kingdom population-based birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Follow-up continues on the cohort; data up to 25 y after recruitment to the study are included in this analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and total fat mass from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured at mean age 9 y, 15 y, and 18 y in G1. Waist circumference was measured at 9 y and 15 y in G1. Concentrations of 148 cardiometabolic traits quantified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were measured at 15 y, 18 y, and 25 y in G1. In G0, all 3 adiposity measures and the same 148 traits were available at 50 y. Using linear regression models, sex-specific associations of adiposity measures at each time point (9 y, 15 y, and 18 y) with cardiometabolic traits 3 to 6 y later were examined in G1. In G0, sex-specific associations of adiposity measures and cardiometabolic traits were examined cross-sectionally at 50 y. A total of 3,081 G1 and 4,887 G0 participants contributed to analyses. BMI was more strongly associated with key atherogenic traits in males compared with females at younger ages (15 y to 25 y), and associations were more similar between the sexes or stronger in females at 50 y, particularly for apolipoprotein B–containing lipoprotein particles and lipid concentrations. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) (3.8 kg/m2) higher BMI at 18 y was associated with 0.36 SD (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.20, 0.52) higher concentrations of extremely large very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles at 25 y in males compared with 0.15 SD (95% CI = 0.09, 0.21) in females, P value for sex difference = 0.02. By contrast, at 50 y, a 1 SD (4.8 kg/m2) higher BMI was associated with 0.33 SD (95% CI = 0.25, 0.42) and 0.30 SD (95% CI = 0.26, 0.33) higher concentrations of extremely large VLDL particles in males and females, respectively, P value for sex difference = 0.42. Sex-specific associations of DXA-measured fat mass and waist circumference with cardiometabolic traits were similar to findings for BMI and cardiometabolic traits at each age. The main limitation of this work is its observational nature, and replication in independent cohorts using methods that can infer causality is required. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that associations of adiposity with adverse cardiometabolic risk begin earlier in the life course among males compared with females and are stronger until midlife, particularly for key atherogenic lipids. Adolescent and young adult males may therefore be high priority targets for obesity prevention efforts.

Scientifica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Roberto E. Nuñez-Leyva ◽  
Tabita E. Lozano-López ◽  
Yaquelin E. Calizaya-Milla ◽  
Sergio E. Calizaya-Milla ◽  
Jacksaint Saintila

Background. Obesity is one of the most important public health problems for university students. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) with waist circumference (WC) as a cardiometabolic risk factor (CMR) among university students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2,048 students from a private university located in Lima, Peru. Anthropometric data (weight, height, %BF, and WC) were collected. Chi-square test was used. Association analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Results. The findings indicated that 36.9% and 61.1% of men were overweight and had higher %BF, respectively, compared to women. Women (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.17, 0.29), Peruvian students (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39, 0.90), and students enrolled in the faculty of health sciences (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62, 0.94) are less likely to manifest CMR. Also, excess body weight (OR, 17.28; 95% CI, 13.21, 22.59) and a high %BF (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 3.55, 5.84) were strongly associated with CMR. Conclusion. CMRs are a public health problem among university students. Therefore, it is important to carry out healthy lifestyle programs to promote better control and prevention, particularly among male students and those who have excess weight and body fat.

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 (1) ◽  
Ahmed Hassanin ◽  
Mahmoud Hassanein ◽  
Gregg M. Lanier ◽  
Mohamed Sadaka ◽  
Mohamed Rifaat ◽  

Abstract Background Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the relationship between obesity and HF mortality remains controversial. Results The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity in patients hospitalized for HF in Egypt and investigate the relationship of obesity to cardiometabolic risk factors, HF phenotype and mortality. Between 2011 and 2014, 1661 patients hospitalized for HF across Egypt were enrolled as part of the European Society of Cardiology HF Long-term Registry. Obese patients, defined by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, were compared to non-obese patients. Factors associated with mortality on univariate analysis were entered into a logistic regression model to identify whether obesity was an independent predictor of mortality during hospitalization and at one-year follow-up. The prevalence of obesity was 46.5% and was higher in females compared to males. Obese as compared to non-obese patients had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (47.0% vs 40.2%, p = 0.031), hypertension (51.3% vs 33.0%, p < 0.001) and history of myocardial infarction (69.2% vs 62.8% p = 0.005). Obese patients as compared to non-obese patient were more likely to have acute coronary syndrome on admission (24.8% vs 14.2%, p <  < 0.001). The dominant HF phenotype in obese and non-obese patients was HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF); however, obese patients as compared to non-obese patient had higher prevalence of HF with preserved EF (22.3% vs 12.4%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that obesity was associated with an independent survival benefit during hospitalization, (OR for mortality 0.52 [95% CI 0.29–0.92]). Every point increase in BMI was associated with an OR = 0.93 [95% CI 0.89–0.98] for mortality during hospitalization. The survival benefit was not maintained at one-year follow-up. Conclusions Obesity was highly prevalent among the study cohort and was associated with higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared to non-obese patients. Obesity was associated with an independent “protective effect” from in-hospital mortality but was not a predictor of mortality at 1-year follow-up.

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