Acute Myeloid
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Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 2) ◽  
pp. LBA-4-LBA-4
Masayuki Umeda ◽  
Jing Ma ◽  
Benjamin J. Huang ◽  
Kohei Hagiwara ◽  
Tamara Westover ◽  

Abstract Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal prognosis due to a high relapse rate; however, the molecular basis leading to relapsed pediatric AML has not yet been fully characterized. To define the spectrum of alterations common at relapse, we performed integrated profiling of 136 relapsed pediatric AML cases with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), whole-genome sequencing, and target-capture sequencing. In addition to well-characterized fusion oncoproteins, such as those involving KMT2A (n=36, 26.5%) or NUP98 (n=18, 13.2%), we also identified somatic mutations in UBTF (upstream binding transcription factor) in 12 of 136 cases (8.8%) of this relapsed cohort. Somatic alterations of the UBTF gene, which encodes a nucleolar protein that is a component of the RNA Pol I pre-initiation complex to ribosomal DNA promoters, have rarely been observed in AML. In our cohort, all alterations can be described as heterozygous in-frame exon 13 tandem duplications (UBTF-TD), either at the 3' end of exon 13 of UBTF or of the entire exon 13 (Fig. A). As we noticed limited detection in our pipeline as a result of complex secondary indels alongside the duplications, we established a soft-clipped read-based screening method to detect UBTF-TD more efficiently. Applying the screening to RNA-seq data of 417 additional pediatric AMLs from previous studies and our clinical service, we identified 15 additional UBTF-TDs, many of which have not been previously reported. At the amino acid level, UBTF-TDs caused amino acid insertions of variable sizes (15-181 amino acids), duplicating a portion of high mobility group domain 4 (HMG4), which includes short leucine-rich sequences. UBTF-TD AMLs commonly occurred in early adolescence (median age: 12.6, range: 2.4-19.6), and 19 of the total 27 cases had either normal karyotype (n=12) or trisomy 8 (n=7). UBTF-TD is mutually exclusive from other recurrent fusion oncoproteins, such as NUP98 and KMT2A rearrangements (Fig. B), but frequently occurred with FLT3-ITD (44.4%) or WT1 mutations (40.7%). The median variant allele fraction (VAF) of the UBTF-TD was 48.0% (range: 9.7-66.7%). In four cases with data at multiple disease time points, the identical UBTF-TDs were present at high allele fractions at all time points, suggesting that UBTF-TD is a clonal alteration. tSNE analysis of the transcriptome dataset showed that UBTF-TD AMLs share a similar expression pattern with NPM1 mutant and NUP98-NSD1 AML subtypes, including NKX2-3 and HOXB cluster genes (Fig. C) . Altogether, these findings suggest that UBTF-TD is a unique subtype of pediatric AML. To address the impact of UBTF-TD expression in primary hematopoietic cells, we introduced UBTF-TD and UBTF wildtype expression vectors into cord blood CD34+ cells via lentiviral transduction. UBTF-TD expression promotes colony-forming activity and cell growth, yielding cells with a persistent blast-like morphology (Fig. D). Further, transcriptional profiling of these cells demonstrated expression of HOXB genes and NKX2-3, similar to UBTF-TD AMLs in patients, indicating that UBTF-TD is sufficient to induce the leukemic phenotype. To investigate the prevalence of UBTF-TDs in larger de novo AML cohorts, we applied the above UBTF-TD screening method to the available de novo AML cohorts of TCGA (n=151, adult), BeatAML (n=220, pediatric and adult), and AAML1031 (n=1035, pediatric). We identified UBTF-TDs in 4.3% (45/1035) of the pediatric AAML1031 cohort, while the alteration is less common (0.9%: 3/329, p=0.002) in the adult AML cohorts (Fig. E). In the AAML1031 cohort, UBTF-TDs remain mutually exclusive with known molecular subtypes of AML and commonly occur with FLT3-ITD (66.7%) and WT1 (40.0%) mutations and either normal karyotype or trisomy 8. The presence of UBTF-TDs in the AAML1031 cohort is associated with a poor outcome (Fig. F, median overall survival, 2.3 years) and MRD positivity; multivariate analysis revealed that UBTF-TD and WT1 are independent risk factors for overall survival within FLT3-ITD+ AMLs. In conclusion, we demonstrate UBTF-TD defines a unique subtype of AMLs that previously lacked a clear oncogenic driver. While independent of subtype-defining oncogenic fusions, UBTF-TD AMLs are associated with FLT3-ITD and WT1 mutations, adolescent age, and poor outcomes. These alterations have been under-recognized by standard bioinformatic approaches yet will be critical for future risk-stratification of pediatric AML. Figure 1 Figure 1. Disclosures Iacobucci: Amgen: Honoraria; Mission Bio: Honoraria. Miller: Johnson & Johnson's Janssen: Current Employment. Mullighan: Pfizer: Research Funding; Illumina: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; AbbVie: Research Funding; Amgen: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company.

Haematologica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Sarah Grasedieck ◽  
Ariene Cabantog ◽  
Liam MacPhee ◽  
Junbum Im ◽  
Christoph Ruess ◽  

Aberrant expression of Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 (EVI1) is a hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(3) or t(3;3), which is a disease subtype with especially poor outcome. In studying transcriptomes from AML patients with chromosome 3q rearrangements, we identified a significant upregulation of the Nuclear Receptor Interacting Protein 1 (NRIP1) as well as its adjacent non-coding RNA LOC101927745. Utilizing transcriptomic and epigenomic data from over 900 primary patient samples as well as genetic and transcriptional engineering approaches, we have identified several mechanisms that can lead to upregulation of NRIP1 in AML. We hypothesize that the LOC101927745 transcription start site harbors a context-dependent enhancer that is bound by EVI1, causing upregulation of NRIP1 in AML with chr3 abnormalities. Furthermore, we show that NRIP1 knockdown negatively affects the proliferation and survival of 3q-rearranged AML cells and increases their sensitivity towards ATRA, suggesting that NRIP1 is relevant for the pathogenesis of inv(3)/t(3;3) AML and could serve as a novel therapeutic target in myeloid malignancies with 3q abnormalities.

Adam J. Lamble ◽  
Lisa Eidenschink Brodersen ◽  
Todd A. Alonzo ◽  
Jim Wang ◽  
Laura Pardo ◽  

PURPOSE Increased CD123 surface expression has been associated with high-risk disease characteristics in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but has not been well-characterized in childhood AML. In this study, we defined CD123 expression and associated clinical characteristics in a uniformly treated cohort of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed AML enrolled on the Children's Oncology Group AAML1031 phase III trial ( NCT01371981 ). MATERIALS AND METHODS AML blasts within diagnostic bone marrow specimens (n = 1,040) were prospectively analyzed for CD123 protein expression by multidimensional flow cytometry immunophenotyping at a central clinical laboratory. Patients were stratified as low-risk or high-risk on the basis of (1) leukemia-associated cytogenetic and molecular alterations and (2) end-of-induction measurable residual disease levels. RESULTS The study population was divided into CD123 expression–based quartiles (n = 260 each) for analysis. Those with highest CD123 expression (quartile 4 [Q4]) had higher prevalence of high-risk KMT2A rearrangements and FLT3-ITD mutations ( P < .001 for both) and lower prevalence of low-risk t(8;21), inv(16), and CEBPA mutations ( P < .001 for all). Patients in lower CD123 expression quartiles (Q1-3) had similar relapse risk, event-free survival, and overall survival. Conversely, Q4 patients had a significantly higher relapse risk (53% v 39%, P < .001), lower event-free survival (49% v 69%, P < .001), and lower overall survival (32% v 50%, P < .001) in comparison with Q1-3 patients. CD123 maintained independent significance for outcomes when all known contemporary high-risk cytogenetic and molecular markers were incorporated into multivariable Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSION CD123 is strongly associated with disease-relevant cytogenetic and molecular alterations in childhood AML. CD123 is a critical biomarker and promising immunotherapeutic target for children with relapsed or refractory AML, given its prevalent expression and enrichment in patients with high-risk genetic alterations and inferior clinical outcomes with conventional therapy.

Leukemia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Kathryn I. Sunthankar ◽  
Matthew T. Jenkins ◽  
Candace H. Cote ◽  
Sweta B. Patel ◽  
Robert S. Welner ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Marta Dratwa ◽  
Barbara Wysoczańska ◽  
Aleksandra Butrym ◽  
Piotr Łacina ◽  
Grzegorz Mazur ◽  

AbstractAcute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a neoplasm of immature myeloid cells characterized by various cytogenetic alterations. The present study showed that in addition to the FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation status, telomere length (TL) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene polymorphisms may affect risk and overall survival (OS) in AML. TL was longer in healthy controls than in AML patients and positively correlated with age in the patients, but not in healthy subjects. TL was found to be independently affected by the presence of the FLT3-ITD mutation. As for the TERT gene polymorphism, AML patients with the TERT rs2853669 CC genotype were characterized by significantly shorter OS than patients carrying the T allele. Another observation in our study is the difference in TL and OS in patients belonging to various risk stratification groups related to the FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation status. Patients with adverse risk classification (mutation in FLT3-ITD and lack of mutation in NPM1) presented with the shortest telomeres and significantly worse OS. In conclusion, OS of AML patients appears to be affected by TERT gene variability and TL in addition to other well-established factors such as age, WBC count, or FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 96 (6) ◽  
pp. 493-500
Jae-Sook Ahn

Chromosomal abnormalities are an important prognostic factor in cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Molecular mutations have been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AML. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the speed and cost of genomic sequencing and enables the parallel analysis of many genes for molecular risk stratification. The molecular mutations currently included in risk stratification at AML diagnosis are c-kit, FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA (biallelic), RUNX1, ASLX1, and TP53. The importance of screening for mutations has been further emphasized by introducing novel therapeutic targets for molecular mutations, such as FLT3-TKD, IDH1, and IDH2. Molecular mutations are also used to evaluate measurable residual disease during treatment and to select the intensity of the treatment during consolidation and follow-up. Pretreatment leukemic marrow and blood should be stored at a biobank to perform NGS analysis in cases of AML at diagnosis. Samples from various time points during and after treatment should be obtained and stored under appropriate conditions.

Nevine F. Shafik ◽  
Dalia Ibraheem ◽  
Marwa Mahmoud Selim ◽  
Rasha Mahmoud Allam ◽  
Lamiaa A. Fathalla

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