diffusion tensor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 100214
Zeinab El Nagar ◽  
Heba H. El Shahawi ◽  
Safeya M. Effat ◽  
Mona M. El Sheikh ◽  
Ahmed Adel ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 96 ◽  
pp. 68-73
Hala A. Shaheen ◽  
Sayed S. Sayed ◽  
Mostafa M. Magdy ◽  
Mohamed A. Saad ◽  
Ahmad M. Magdy ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Sara B. W. Troutman ◽  
David J. Madden ◽  
Michele T. Diaz

Abstract As people age, one of the most common complaints is difficulty with word retrieval. A wealth of behavioral research confirms such age-related language production deficits, yet the structural neural differences that relate to age-related language production deficits remains an open area of exploration. Therefore, the present study used a large sample of healthy adults across adulthood to investigate how age-related white matter differences in three key left-hemisphere language tracts may contribute to age-related differences in language ability. Specifically, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) which are indicators of white matter structure. We then used a series of path models to test whether white matter from the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and the frontal aslant tract (FAT) mediated age-related differences in one form of language production, picture naming. We found that FA, as well as RD from the SLF and FAT mediated the relation between age and picture naming performance, whereas a control tract (corticospinal; CST) was not a mediator. Moreover, differences between mediation of picture naming and a control naming condition suggest that left SLF has a greater role in higher-order aspects of naming, such as semantic and lexical selection whereas left FAT is more sensitive to sensorimotor aspects of fluency or speech motor planning. These results suggest that dorsal white matter contributes to age-related differences in generating speech and may be particularly important in supporting word retrieval across adulthood.

2022 ◽  
Xiaoying Wang ◽  
Wenhui Guo ◽  
Yingying Zhang ◽  
Dan Liu ◽  
Qing Gao ◽  

Abstract Background: Posture/balance disorder and pain are both present in Parkinson's patients, but their neural basis remain unclear. To investigate the central mechanism of posture/balance disorder and PD-related pain in Parkinson's disease by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), combined with Transcranial Doppler (TCD). Results: It was found that the dose of levodopa, UPDRSⅡ and UPDRSⅢ were higher value in the group with higher score of posture/balance. In the more severe posture/balance disorder group, the fiber bundles of the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and basal ganglia were more likely to be affected. In addition, the DTI parameter values of the three brain regions had a significant correlation with the parameter values of the corresponding arteries. In the analysis of PD-related pain, the white matter fiber bundles from the midbrain to the basal ganglia increased in patients with PD-related pain. There were no statistic difference in prevalence of PD-related pain was found between different groups according to posture/balance. Conclusions: Posture and balance in PD were correlated with the severity of the disease and the dosage of compound levodopa. Posture and balance in PD were related to changes in the white matter integrity of the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and basal ganglia. The function of cerebral arteries had contributions to white matter integrity of these area and posture/balance. PD-related pain was positively correlated with sleep score. Patients with PD-related pain had an increase in the fiber projection from the midbrain to the basal ganglia. No relation was found between posture/balance disorder with PD-related pain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 816
Jordan Colman ◽  
Laura Mancini ◽  
Spyros Manolopoulos ◽  
Meetakshi Gupta ◽  
Michael Kosmin ◽  

Despite the increasing precision of radiotherapy delivery, it is still frequently associated with neurological complications. This is in part due to damage to eloquent white matter (WM) tracts, which is made more likely by the fact they cannot be visualised on standard structural imaging. WM is additionally more vulnerable than grey matter to radiation damage. Primary brain malignancies also are known to spread along the WM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the only in vivo method of delineating WM tracts. DTI is an imaging technique that models the direction of diffusion and therefore can infer the orientation of WM fibres. This review article evaluates the current evidence for using DTI to guide intracranial radiotherapy and whether it constitutes a new state-of-the-art technique. We provide a basic overview of DTI and its known applications in radiotherapy, which include using tractography to reduce the radiation dose to eloquent WM tracts and using DTI to detect or predict tumoural spread. We evaluate the evidence for DTI-guided radiotherapy in gliomas, metastatic disease, and benign conditions, finding that the strongest evidence is for its use in arteriovenous malformations. However, the evidence is weak in other conditions due to a lack of case-controlled trials.

Guillaume Jaques ◽  
Fabio Becce ◽  
Jean-Baptiste Ledoux ◽  
Sébastien Durand

AbstractUlnar/cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common compressive neuropathy of the upper limb. Permanent location of the ulnar nerve anterior to the medial epicondyle is extremely rare, with only five cases reported in the literature. Using ultrasound elastography and diffusion tensor imaging with fiber tractography, we diagnosed a case in which ulnar nerve entrapment was associated with anterior nerve location. Surgical release confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was symptom free 3 months after surgery.

2022 ◽  
Eleonora Picerni ◽  
Daniela Laricchiuta ◽  
Fabrizio Piras ◽  
Laura Petrosini ◽  
Gianfranco Spalletta ◽  

Abstract Brain structural bases of individual differences in attachment are not yet fully clarified. Given the evidence of relevant cerebellar contribution to cognitive, affective, and social functions, the present research was aimed at investigating potential associations between attachment dimensions (through the Attachment Style Questionnaire, ASQ) and cerebellar macro- and micro-structural measures (Volumetric and Diffusion Tensor Imaging data). In a sample of 79 healthy subjects, cerebellar and neocortical volumetric data were correlated with ASQ scores at the voxel level within specific Regions Of Interest. Also, correlations between ASQ scores and age, years of education, anxiety and depression levels were performed to control for the effects of sociodemographic and psychological variables on neuroimaging results.Positive associations between scores of the Preoccupation with Relationships (ASQ subscale associated to insecure/anxious attachment) and cortical volume were found in the cerebellum (right lobule VI and left Crus 2) and neocortex (right medial OrbitoFrontal Cortex, OFC) regions. Cerebellar contribution to the attachment behavioral system reflects the more general cerebellar engagement in the regulation of emotional and social behaviors. Cerebellar properties of timing, prediction, and learning well integrate with OFC processing supporting the regulation of attachment experiences. Cerebellar areas might be rightfully included in the attachment behavioral system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 358
Francesco Latini ◽  
Markus Fahlström ◽  
Fredrik Vedung ◽  
Staffan Stensson ◽  
Elna-Marie Larsson ◽  

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or repeated sport-related concussions (rSRC) may lead to long-term memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is helpful to reveal global white matter damage but may underestimate focal abnormalities. We investigated the distribution of post-injury regional white matter changes after TBI and rSRC. Six patients with moderate/severe TBI, and 12 athletes with rSRC were included ≥6 months post-injury, and 10 (age-matched) healthy controls (HC) were analyzed. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status was performed at the time of DTI. Major white matter pathways were tracked using q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction and analyzed for global and regional changes with a controlled false discovery rate. TBI patients displayed multiple classic white matter injuries compared with HC (p < 0.01). At the regional white matter analysis, the left frontal aslant tract, anterior thalamic radiation, and the genu of the corpus callosum displayed focal changes in both groups compared with HC but with different trends. Both TBI and rSRC displayed worse memory performance compared with HC (p < 0.05). While global analysis of DTI-based parameters did not reveal common abnormalities in TBI and rSRC, abnormalities to the fronto-thalamic network were observed in both groups using regional analysis of the white matter pathways. These results may be valuable to tailor individualized rehabilitative approaches for post-injury cognitive impairment in both TBI and rSRC patients.

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