Diffusion Tensor Imaging
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2021 ◽  
pp. 028418512110582
Takumi Yokohama ◽  
Motoyuki Iwasaki ◽  
Daisuke Oura ◽  
Sho Furuya ◽  
Yoshimasa Niiya

Background Recent studies have indicated that injuries such as muscle tears modify the microstructural integrity of muscle, leading to substantial alterations in measured diffusion parameters. Therefore, the fractional anisotropy (FA) value decreases. However, we hypothesized that soft tissue, such as muscle tissue, undergoes reversible changes under conditions of compression without fiber injury. Purpose To evaluate the FA change due to compression in muscle tissue without fiber injury. Material and Methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on both feet of 10 healthy volunteers (mean age = 35.0 ± 10.39 years; age range = 23–52 years) using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with an eight-channel phased array knee coil. An MRI-compatible sphygmomanometer was applied to the individuals’ lower legs and individuals were placed in a compressed state. Then, rest intervals of 5 min were set in re-rest state after compression. The FA value, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3) of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle were measured at each state. Results The mean FA values increased in all muscles in a compressed state, while the mean λ3 decreased. In all muscles, significant differences were found between the rest and compressed states in terms of mean FA and λ3 ( P < 0.0001). Conclusion We confirmed the reversibility of the DTI metrics, which suggests that there was no muscle injury during this study. In cases of compression without fiber injury, the FA value increases, because fibers are strongly aligned in the longitudinal direction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 259-274
Adam T. Schmidt ◽  
Hannah M. Lindsey ◽  
Emily Dennis ◽  
Elisabeth A. Wilde ◽  
Brian D. Biekman ◽  

2021 ◽  
Zheng Cao ◽  
Weitao Man ◽  
Yuhui Xiong ◽  
Yi Guo ◽  
Shuhui Yang ◽  

Abstract A hierarchically aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG) that possesses soft stiffness and aligned nanofiber structure has been successfully proven to facilitate neuroregeneration in vitro and in vivo. However, its potential in promoting nerve regeneration in large animal models that is critical for clinical translation has not been sufficiently specified. Here, the effects of AFG on directing neuroregeneration in canine hemisected T12 spinal cord injuries were explored. Histologically obvious white matter regeneration consisting of a large area of consecutive, compact, and aligned nerve fibers is induced by AFG, leading to a significant motor functional restoration. The canines with AFG implantation start to stand well with their defective legs from 3 to 4 weeks postoperatively and even effortlessly climb the steps from 7 to 8 weeks. Moreover, high-resolution multi-shot diffusion tensor imaging illustrates the spatiotemporal dynamics of nerve regeneration rapidly crossing the lesion within 4 weeks in the AFG group. Our findings indicate that AFG could be a potential therapeutic vehicle for spinal cord injury by inducing rapid white matter regeneration and restoring locomotion, pointing out its promising prospect in clinic practice.

2021 ◽  
pp. 155005942110582
Sophie A. Stewart ◽  
Laura Pimer ◽  
John D. Fisk ◽  
Benjamin Rusak ◽  
Ron A. Leslie ◽  

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is typified by motor signs and symptoms but can also lead to significant cognitive impairment and dementia Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD). While dementia is considered a nonmotor feature of PD that typically occurs later, individuals with PD may experience mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) earlier in the disease course. Olfactory deficit (OD) is considered another nonmotor symptom of PD and often presents even before the motor signs and diagnosis of PD. We examined potential links among cognitive impairment, olfactory functioning, and white matter integrity of olfactory brain regions in persons with early-stage PD. Cognitive tests were used to established groups with PD-MCI and with normal cognition (PD-NC). Olfactory functioning was examined using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) while the white matter integrity of the anterior olfactory structures (AOS) was examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Those with PD-MCI demonstrated poorer olfactory functioning and abnormalities based on all DTI parameters in the AOS, relative to PD-NC individuals. OD and microstructural changes in the AOS of individuals with PD may serve as additional biological markers of PD-MCI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Yongjia Shao ◽  
Zijian Wang ◽  
Bin Ji ◽  
Hang Qi ◽  
Shangci Hao ◽  

Objective: To explore the relationship between white matter changes and olfactory ability among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to develop a tool to predict the development of Alzheimer’s disease among patients with MCI.Methods: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used for cognitive assessments, and the 70% isopropanol test paper was used to evaluate olfactory function. Tract-based spatial statistics, based on the diffusion tensor imaging technology, were used to obtain relevant parameters, and behavioral and imaging results were compared between patients with MCI (n = 36) and healthy older adults (n = 32).Results: The olfactory ability of MCI patients was lower overall, which was positively correlated with the MoCA score. Fractional anisotropy (FA) changes significantly of all parameters. Lower FA regions were mainly located in the corpus callosum, the orbitofrontal gyrus, and the left occipital lobe. The olfactory score was significantly correlated with the FA value of the orbitofrontal gyrus. Fibrous connections in several brain regions, such as the entorhinal cortex, were stronger in patients with MCI.Conclusion: The olfactory ability of MCI patients in our group was positively correlated with the neuropsychological scale results. Impairment in olfactory function was superior to memory deficits for predicting cognitive decline among cognitively intact participants. The fibrous connections in several brain regions, such as the entorhinal cortex, were higher in patients with MCI, which suggested that there may be a compensatory mechanism in the olfactory pathway in MCI patients. The decline in olfactory function may be a significant and useful indicator of neuropathological changes in MCI patients and an effective marker for the development of cognitive decline and dementia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Benjamin Yeske ◽  
Jiancheng Hou ◽  
Nagesh Adluru ◽  
Veena A. Nair ◽  
Vivek Prabhakaran

Throughout adulthood, the brain undergoes an array of structural and functional changes during the typical aging process. These changes involve decreased brain volume, reduced synaptic density, and alterations in white matter (WM). Although there have been some previous neuroimaging studies that have measured the ability of adult language production and its correlations to brain function, structural gray matter volume, and functional differences between young and old adults, the structural role of WM in adult language production in individuals across the life span remains to be thoroughly elucidated. This study selected 38 young adults and 35 old adults for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and performed the Controlled Oral Word Association Test to assess verbal fluency (VF). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were employed to evaluate the voxel-based group differences of diffusion metrics for the values of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and local diffusion homogeneity (LDH) in 12 WM regions of interest associated with language production. To investigate group differences on each DTI metric, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for sex and education level was performed, and the statistical threshold was considered at p &lt; 0.00083 (0.05/60 labels) after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Significant differences in DTI metrics identified in the ANCOVA were used to perform correlation analyses with VF scores. Compared to the old adults, the young adults had significantly (1) increased FA values on the bilateral anterior corona radiata (ACR); (2) decreased MD values on the right ACR, but increased MD on the left uncinate fasciculus (UF); and (3) decreased RD on the bilateral ACR. There were no significant differences between the groups for AD or LDH. Moreover, the old adults had only a significant correlation between the VF score and the MD on the left UF. There were no significant correlations between VF score and DTI metrics in the young adults. This study adds to the growing body of research that WM areas involved in language production are sensitive to aging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1235
Niels Bergsland ◽  
Laura Pelizzari ◽  
Maria Marcella Laganá ◽  
Sonia Di Tella ◽  
Federica Rossetto ◽  

The substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta (SNpc) and pars reticulata (SNpr) are differentially affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Separating the SNpc and SNpr is challenging with standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for the characterization of SN microstructure in a non-invasive manner. In this study, 29 PD patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs) were imaged with 1.5T MRI for DTI. Images were nonlinearly registered to standard space and SNpc and SNpr DTI parameters were measured. ANCOVA and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed. Clinical associations were assessed with Spearman correlations. Multiple corrections were controlled for false discovery rate. PD patients presented with significantly increased SNpc axial diffusivity (AD) (1.207 ± 0.068 versus 1.156 ± 0.045, p = 0.024), with ROC analysis yielding an under the curve of 0.736. Trends with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III scores were identified for SNpc MD (rs = 0.449), AD (rs = 0.388), and radial diffusivity (rs = 0.391) (all p < 0.1). A trend between baseline SNpr MD and H&Y change (rs = 0.563, p = 0.081) over 2.9 years of follow-up was identified (n = 14). In conclusion, SN microstructure shows robust, clinically meaningful associations in PD.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Maurizio Bergamino ◽  
Elizabeth G. Keeling ◽  
Leslie C. Baxter ◽  
Nicholas J. Sisco ◽  
Ryan R. Walsh ◽  

Background: Imaging biomarkers are increasingly used in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the identification of sex differences using neuroimaging may provide insight into disease heterogeneity, progression, and therapeutic targets. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in grey matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) microstructural disorganization between males and females with AD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and free-water-corrected diffusion tensor imaging (FW-DTI). Methods: Data were downloaded from the OASIS-3 database, including 158 healthy control (HC; 86 females) and 46 mild AD subjects (24 females). VBM and FW-DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy (FA), axial and radial diffusivities (AxD and RD, respectively), and FW index) were compared using effect size for the main effects of group, sex, and their interaction. Results: Significant group and sex differences were observed, with no significant interaction. Post-hoc comparisons showed that AD is associated with reduced GM volume, reduced FW-FA, and higher FW-RD/FW-index, consistent with neurodegeneration. Females in both groups exhibited higher GM volume than males, while FW-DTI metrics showed sex differences only in the AD group. Lower FW, lower FW-FA and higher FW-RD were observed in females relative to males in the AD group. Conclusion: The combination of VBM and DTI may reveal complementary sex-specific changes in GM and WM associated with AD and aging. Sex differences in GM volume were observed for both groups, while FW-DTI metrics only showed significant sex differences in the AD group, suggesting that WM tract disorganization may play a differential role in AD pathophysiology between females and males.

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