Contrast Enhanced
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Felix G. Gassert ◽  
Sebastian Ziegelmayer ◽  
Johanna Luitjens ◽  
Florian T. Gassert ◽  
Fabian Tollens ◽  

Abstract Objective Pancreatic cancer is portrayed to become the second leading cause of cancer-related death within the next years. Potentially complicating surgical resection emphasizes the importance of an accurate TNM classification. In particular, the failure to detect features for non-resectability has profound consequences on patient outcomes and economic costs due to incorrect indication for resection. In the detection of liver metastases, contrast-enhanced MRI showed high sensitivity and specificity; however, the cost-effectiveness compared to the standard of care imaging remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze whether additional MRI of the liver is a cost-effective approach compared to routinely acquired contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) in the initial staging of pancreatic cancer. Methods A decision model based on Markov simulation was developed to estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and lifetime costs of the diagnostic modalities. Model input parameters were assessed based on evidence from recent literature. The willingness-to-pay (WTP) was set to $100,000/QALY. To evaluate model uncertainty, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results In the base-case analysis, the model yielded a total cost of $185,597 and an effectiveness of 2.347 QALYs for CE-MR/CT and $187,601 and 2.337 QALYs for CE-CT respectively. With a net monetary benefit (NMB) of $49,133, CE-MR/CT is shown to be dominant over CE-CT with a NMB of $46,117. Deterministic and probabilistic survival analysis showed model robustness for varying input parameters. Conclusion Based on our results, combined CE-MR/CT can be regarded as a cost-effective imaging strategy for the staging of pancreatic cancer. Key Points • Additional MRI of the liver for initial staging of pancreatic cancer results in lower total costs and higher effectiveness. • The economic model showed high robustness for varying input parameters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Jun Sun ◽  
Fengyu Na ◽  
Bo Ma ◽  
Li Wang ◽  
Hanbing Shi ◽  

In recent years, due to the influence of living habits and smoking, the number of lung cancer patients worldwide has increased year by year, and it has gradually developed into one of the common diseases endangering human life. CEUS can observe the lesion and realize the rapid identification of the location of the active area of the lesion. CEUS is the abbreviation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound technology. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound technology is to inject ultrasound contrast agent through a peripheral vein to perform ultrasound exploration to observe the enhancement of the internal nodules. Compared with color ultrasound, it can diagnose more accurately and improve the inspection effect. At present, this technology is used for the diagnosis of many types of space-occupying lesions, but it is rarely used for the diagnosis of lung lesions. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of CEUS quantitative parameters combined with lung biopsy in the assessment of benign and malignant peripheral lung diseases. Based on the relevant theoretical basis of CEUS and lung biopsy, 158 patients with peripheral lung disease were selected as experimental subjects, and they were divided into experimental group and control group for comparative experiments. Experiments proved the effectiveness of CEUS quantitative parameters combined with lung biopsy methods. The experimental results showed that, compared with the benign group, the time-intensity curve, the rise time, and the peak time of the malignant lesions were significantly prolonged. In addition, CEUS combined with the quantitative parameters of lung biopsy can effectively distinguish the activity of lung lesions and the site of necrosis and promote the effective increase of the positive rate of lung biopsy.

Alexander P Cole ◽  
Bjoern J. Langbein ◽  
Francesco Giganti ◽  
Fiona M. Fennessy ◽  
Clare M. Tempany ◽  

The role of multiparametric MRI in diagnosis, staging and treatment planning for prostate cancer is well established. However there remain several challenges to widespread adoption. One such challenge is the duration and cost the examination. Abbreviated exams omitting contrast enhanced sequences may help address this challenge. In this review, we will discuss the rationale for biparametric MRI (bpMRI) for detection and characterization of clinically significant prostate cancer prior to biopsy and synthesize the published literature. We will weigh up the advantages and disadvantages to this approach and lay out a conceptual cost/benefit analysis regarding adoption of bpMRI.

Anni Lepola ◽  
Otso Arponen ◽  
Hidemi Okuma ◽  
Kirsi Holli-Helenius ◽  
Heikki Junkkari ◽  

Objectives: The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether three-dimensional texture analysis (3D-TA) features of non-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI associate with traditional prognostic factors and disease-free survival (DFS) of breast cancer. Methods: 3D-T1-weighted images from 78 patients with 81 malignant histopathologically verified breast lesions were retrospectively analysed using standard-size volumes of interest. Grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based features were selected for statistical analysis. In statistics the Mann–Whitney U and the Kruskal–Wallis tests, the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier method were used. Results: Tumours with higher histological grade were significantly associated with higher contrast (1voxel: p = 0.033, two voxels: p = 0.036). All the entropy parameters showed significant correlation with tumour grade (p = 0.015–0.050) but there were no statistically significant associations between other TA parameters and tumour grade. The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was correlated with contrast and sum entropy parameters. A higher sum variance TA parameter was a significant predictor of shorter DFS. Conclusion: Texture parameters, assessed by 3D-TA from non-enhanced T1-weighted images, indicate tumour heterogeneity but have limited independent prognostic value. However, they are associated with tumour grade, NPI, and DFS. These parameters could be used as an adjunct to contrast-enhanced TA parameters. Advances in knowledge: 3D texture analysis of non-contrast enhanced T1-weighted breast MRI associates with tumour grade, NPI, and DFS. The use of non-contrast 3D TA parameters in adjunct with contrast-enhanced 3D TA parameters warrants further research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 63
Gesine Peters ◽  
Anne Margaret Lynch ◽  
Johannes Peters

Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) is a new technology in breast imaging and cancer detection. It has been shown to have a comparable performance to breast MRI. Currently, there is no independent BI-RADS lexicon available for CEM. This pictorial essay will demonstrate the use of breast MRI descriptors according to the BI-RADS breast MRI lexicon, to describe enhancement patterns for recombined CEM images. The authors recommend using enhancement pattern descriptors already in use for breast MRI when reporting CEM studies, to promote uniformity of interpretation and reporting.

Vitali Koch ◽  
Moritz H. Albrecht ◽  
Leon D. Gruenewald ◽  
Ibrahim Yel ◽  
Katrin Eichler ◽  

Abstract Objectives To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of color-coded contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT virtual noncalcium (VNCa) reconstructions for the assessment of lumbar disk herniation compared to unenhanced VNCa imaging. Methods A total of 91 patients were retrospectively evaluated (65 years ± 16; 43 women) who had undergone third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT and 3.0-T MRI within an examination interval up to 3 weeks between November 2019 and December 2020. Eight weeks after assessing unenhanced color-coded VNCa reconstructions for the presence and degree of lumbar disk herniation, corresponding contrast-enhanced portal venous phase color-coded VNCa reconstructions were independently analyzed by the same five radiologists. MRI series were additionally analyzed by one highly experienced musculoskeletal radiologist and served as reference standard. Results MRI depicted 210 herniated lumbar disks in 91 patients. VNCa reconstructions derived from contrast-enhanced CT scans showed similar high overall sensitivity (93% vs 95%), specificity (94% vs 95%), and accuracy (94% vs 95%) for the assessment of lumbar disk herniation compared to unenhanced VNCa images (all p > .05). Interrater agreement in VNCa imaging was excellent for both, unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT (κ = 0.84 vs κ = 0.86; p > .05). Moreover, ratings for diagnostic confidence, image quality, and noise differed not significantly between unenhanced and contrast-enhanced VNCa series (all p > .05). Conclusions Color-coded VNCa reconstructions derived from contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT yield similar diagnostic accuracy for the depiction of lumbar disk herniation compared to unenhanced VNCa imaging and therefore may improve opportunistic retrospective lumbar disk herniation assessment, particularly in case of staging CT examinations. Key Points • Color-coded dual-source dual-energy CT virtual noncalcium (VNCa) reconstructions derived from portal venous phase yield similar high diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of lumbar disk herniation compared to unenhanced VNCa CT series (94% vs 95%) with MRI serving as a standard of reference. • Diagnostic confidence, image quality, and noise levels differ not significantly between unenhanced and contrast-enhanced portal venous phase VNCa dual-energy CT series. • Dual-source dual-energy CT might have the potential to improve opportunistic retrospective lumbar disk herniation assessment in CT examinations performed for other indications through reconstruction of VNCa images.

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