Central venous catheters (CVC) are used in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. We performed a systematic literature review concerning case reports of retained calcified fibrin sheaths after dialysis CVC removal. The aim of our study was to systematize the knowledge regarding clinical management of this phenomenon, placing special emphasis on diagnostic radiological features in different imaging modalities, including chest radiography, echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss the most common risk factors associated with this CVC complication. In our review, we found eight cases of hemodialysis patients. The most common risk factors associated with calcified fibrin sheath formation in the analyzed cases were pro-thrombotic and pro-calcification factors related to patient comorbidities, and prolonged catheter dwell time. Differentiating between a calcified fibrin sheath (present in about 6% of patients with long-term indwelling CVC as diagnosed by computed tomography) and a retained catheter tip can be challenging. The initial diagnosis based on imaging methods was incorrect in most of the analyzed cases. This suggests that some cases of retained fibrin sheaths may remain undetected or misinterpreted. This is important in patients with known pro-thrombotic and pro-calcification risk factors and prolonged catheter dwell time. Therefore, implementation of preventive strategies, familiarity with radiological findings of this phenomenon, comparison with previous imaging studies, and an overall comprehensive assessment with clinical data is imperative.
Objective. The aim of the study is to identify risk factors associated to infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in adult patients through a systematic literature review, classify them according to their importance and provide recommendations by experts in the Spanish context. Material and methods. We developed a systematic literature review to identify risk factors associated to CRPA or CRAB infections and they were evaluated and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts. Results. There were included 29 studies for P. aeruginosa and 23 for A. baumannii out of 593 identified through systematic literature review. We identified 38 risk factors for P. aeruginosa and 36 for A. baumannii. After risk factor evaluation by the panel of experts, results for CRPA were: 11 important, 10 slightly important and 15 unimportant risk factors; and for CRAB were: 9 important, 5 slightly important and 19 unimportant risk factors. For both pathogens, previous use of antibiotics and hospitalization were important risk factors. Conclusion. We could identify the main risk factors associated to CRPA and CRAB through literature review. There is a need for developing additional studies with higher levels of evidence to identify sooner and better infected patients through associated risk factors.
The current research analyzed the risk factors associated with committing homicide in adolescence. This research is a systematic literature review of the scientific literature. The databases that were used are: Scielo, Pubmed and CAPES journals. Only 10 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the removal of duplicates. Social, behavioral, psychological, psychopathological and biological factors associated with homicide in adolescence were found. No single factor was found to be decisive for the adolescent to commit homicide. The importance of preventive measures for this phenomenon is highlighted.