associated risk factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Malik Bisserier ◽  
Nathaniel Saffran ◽  
Agnieszka Brojakowska ◽  
Aimy Sebastian ◽  
Angela Clare Evans ◽  

During spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and ionizing radiation, that can cause a range of harmful health consequences. Over the past decades, increasing evidence demonstrates that the space environment can induce changes in gene expression and RNA processing. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) represent an emerging area of focus in molecular biology as they modulate chromatin structure and function, the transcription of neighboring genes, and affect RNA splicing, stability, and translation. They have been implicated in cancer development and associated with diverse cardiovascular conditions and associated risk factors. However, their role on astronauts’ health after spaceflight remains poorly understood. In this perspective article, we provide new insights into the potential role of exosomal lncRNA after spaceflight. We analyzed the transcriptional profile of exosomes isolated from peripheral blood plasma of three astronauts who flew on various Shuttle missions between 1998–2001 by RNA-sequencing. Computational analysis of the transcriptome of these exosomes identified 27 differentially expressed lncRNAs with a Log2 fold change, with molecular, cellular, and clinical implications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-91
Kamar Jahan ◽  
Binod Kumar Mahaseth

Introduction: Foetal death at any stage of pregnancy is not just a tragic event but also a more traumatic for the mental well-being of a mother. It is one of the most wrenching events in the field of obstetrics. Aims: The study was done to determine the probable risk factors of intrauterine foetal death and role of antenatal care in its prevention. Methods: The study was conducted  in Obstetrics and Gynecology department at Nepalgunj Medical college from July 2018 to July 2020 .Inclusion criteria were  intrauterine fetal death  of >28 weeks of gestation and baby weighing  1000 grams or more . An exclusion criterion was molar pregnancy. Results: There were 115(3.52%) intrauterine fetal death during the study period, making it 35 per 1000 cases. In 17(14.78%) the cause of intrauterine fetal death was not known. The other common associated risk factors were prematurity in 14(12.17%) and hypertension in 13(11.30%). Similarly anemia and antepartum hemorrhage were seen in 13(11.30%) each. 11(9.56%) patients had oligohydramnios. Mal presentation was found in 8(6.95%) patients while polyhydromnios in 6(5.21%).The commonest age range in whom intrauterine fetal death was seen was 20-30 (73.90%). 28 (24.34%) patients were at preterm pregnancy ranging between 28-30 weeks whereas 17(14.78) intrauterine fetal death occured at  32-34 weeks. 77 foetuses were preterm and their birth weight was between 1 - 1.5 kg  with the mean wt of  1175.73 gms. Conclusion: Intrauterine fetal death is still common inspite of the improving awareness in importance of regular antenatal care. In majority, the cause of intrauterine fetal death is still unknown. However, where the cause was known prematurity was the commonest.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-14
Fatima Ibrahim ABDULSALAM ◽  
Tabarak Malik ◽  

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) surveys precede an awareness or intervention program, it addresses a felt need in a population in which that need exists. In an endemic region of cutaneous leishmaniasis disease occurrence, public enlightenment on its preventive and control measures is highly important. Ilam province of Iran is a provincial border town transited annually by pilgrims was reported to have the most cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis ranking highest since 2010 yet no report on KAP survey has been previously conducted.

Sheema Sabahath ◽  
Abdullah Haitham Bogis ◽  
Taif Shabib Al Mutairi ◽  
Hasan Yousef Alshahabi ◽  
Hussain Ahmed Al Sayhab ◽  

A cystocele is usually found to protrude the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall. Various causes have been reported in the literature for the pathogenesis and development of cystocele. These can cumulatively lead to a remarkable weakness in the muscular and connective tissue layers related to the urinary bladder and anterior vaginal wall. The present study discusses the etiology, staging, and management of patients with cystocele. Evidence indicates that a defect within the pelvic-floor supporting system can significantly lead to the development of cystocele. Parity, increasing age, and obesity are the main associated risk factors for developing these events. Staging is important to decide the most suitable treatment plan, which might be conservative or surgical. Some patients do not require any management approach, being asymptomatic, and refuse the current treatment modalities. Surgery has been associated with enhanced outcomes and can be conducted via two different approaches, including anterior colporrhaphy and sacral colpopexy. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Tamiru Yazew

Undernutrition is the most difficult and widespread public health concern in low-income nations including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the associated risk factors of stunting and wasting among children aged 6–59 months in Jima Geneti district, Western Oromia, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 children from December 1 to 28, 2020. A multiple-stage sampling method was performed to select children from each kebele. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and the nutritional status was generated using WHO Anthro v. 3.2.1. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify the associated risk factors of stunting and wasting among children in the study area. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 . The study results showed that the prevalence of stunting and wasting among children was 27% and 11.8%, respectively. The findings of this study also revealed that the prevalence of household food insecurity and poor dietary diets was 19.6% and 52.2%, respectively. Low wealth status (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.55) and poor dietary diets (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 8.83) were associated risk factors for stunting. However, child meal frequency (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.23, 12.6), and children who did feed leftover food (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.02, 7.44) were associated risk factors for wasting. Poor dietary diets (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.66) were also associated risk factors for wasting. The findings of this study concluded that the prevalence of stunting and wasting was high in the study area. Therefore, addressing family-level risk factors which are major drivers of children’s nutritional status is crucial to ensure the nutritional status of children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Teresa Palano ◽  
Martina Cucchiara ◽  
Matteo Gallazzi ◽  
Federica Riccio ◽  
Lorenzo Mortara ◽  

Atherosclerosis (ATS), the change in structure and function of arteries with associated lesion formation and altered blood flow, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer worldwide. Beyond dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, together with aberrant phenotype and function of cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, are now recognized as relevant contributors to atherosclerosis onset and progression. While the role of macrophages and T cells in atherosclerosis has been addressed in several studies, Natural Killer cells (NKs) represent a poorly explored immune cell type, that deserves attention, due to NKs’ emerging contribution to vascular homeostasis. Furthermore, the possibility to re-polarize the immune system has emerged as a relevant tool to design new therapies, with some succesfull exmples in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Thus, a deeper knowledge of NK cell pathophysiology in the context of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated risk factors could help developing new preventive and treatment strategies, and decipher the complex scenario/history from “the risk factors for atherosclerosis” Here, we review the current knowledge about NK cell phenotype and activities in atherosclerosis and selected atherosclerosis risk factors, namely type-2 diabetes and obesity, and discuss the related NK-cell oriented environmental signals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. e2139986
Josiemer Mattei ◽  
Martha Tamez ◽  
June O’Neill ◽  
Sebastien Haneuse ◽  
Sigrid Mendoza ◽  

2022 ◽  
laila sherief ◽  
marwa zakaria ◽  
basma soliman ◽  
naglaa kamal ◽  
Hekmat Khan ◽  

Abstract Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is relatively common in children with acute ALL that usually appears after the diagnosis or during therapy secondary to many associated risk factors. Here in we report for the first time a child who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) prior to the diagnosis of ALL.

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