Associated Risk Factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-14
Fatima Ibrahim ABDULSALAM ◽  
Tabarak Malik ◽  

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) surveys precede an awareness or intervention program, it addresses a felt need in a population in which that need exists. In an endemic region of cutaneous leishmaniasis disease occurrence, public enlightenment on its preventive and control measures is highly important. Ilam province of Iran is a provincial border town transited annually by pilgrims was reported to have the most cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis ranking highest since 2010 yet no report on KAP survey has been previously conducted.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Teresa Palano ◽  
Martina Cucchiara ◽  
Matteo Gallazzi ◽  
Federica Riccio ◽  
Lorenzo Mortara ◽  

Atherosclerosis (ATS), the change in structure and function of arteries with associated lesion formation and altered blood flow, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer worldwide. Beyond dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, together with aberrant phenotype and function of cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, are now recognized as relevant contributors to atherosclerosis onset and progression. While the role of macrophages and T cells in atherosclerosis has been addressed in several studies, Natural Killer cells (NKs) represent a poorly explored immune cell type, that deserves attention, due to NKs’ emerging contribution to vascular homeostasis. Furthermore, the possibility to re-polarize the immune system has emerged as a relevant tool to design new therapies, with some succesfull exmples in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Thus, a deeper knowledge of NK cell pathophysiology in the context of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated risk factors could help developing new preventive and treatment strategies, and decipher the complex scenario/history from “the risk factors for atherosclerosis” Here, we review the current knowledge about NK cell phenotype and activities in atherosclerosis and selected atherosclerosis risk factors, namely type-2 diabetes and obesity, and discuss the related NK-cell oriented environmental signals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Tamiru Yazew

Undernutrition is the most difficult and widespread public health concern in low-income nations including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the associated risk factors of stunting and wasting among children aged 6–59 months in Jima Geneti district, Western Oromia, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 children from December 1 to 28, 2020. A multiple-stage sampling method was performed to select children from each kebele. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and the nutritional status was generated using WHO Anthro v. 3.2.1. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify the associated risk factors of stunting and wasting among children in the study area. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 . The study results showed that the prevalence of stunting and wasting among children was 27% and 11.8%, respectively. The findings of this study also revealed that the prevalence of household food insecurity and poor dietary diets was 19.6% and 52.2%, respectively. Low wealth status (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.55) and poor dietary diets (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 8.83) were associated risk factors for stunting. However, child meal frequency (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.23, 12.6), and children who did feed leftover food (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.02, 7.44) were associated risk factors for wasting. Poor dietary diets (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.66) were also associated risk factors for wasting. The findings of this study concluded that the prevalence of stunting and wasting was high in the study area. Therefore, addressing family-level risk factors which are major drivers of children’s nutritional status is crucial to ensure the nutritional status of children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. e2139986
Josiemer Mattei ◽  
Martha Tamez ◽  
June O’Neill ◽  
Sebastien Haneuse ◽  
Sigrid Mendoza ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Nicole Krenitsky ◽  
Alexander M. Friedman ◽  
Kathleen Yu ◽  
Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman ◽  
Jamila Williams-Kane ◽  

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