Preventive Measures
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Lingru Li ◽  
Yue Meng ◽  
Ji Wang ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Yong Zeng ◽  

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate how knowledge and practice of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention measures affected concerns about returning to work among supermarket staff. Attitudes about the ability of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to prevent COVID-19 were also assessed.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Huanggang, Hubei Province, China from April 23 to 25, 2020. Participants were invited to fill out an electronic questionnaire on their cell phones.Results: The results showed that from 2,309 valid questionnaires, 61.5% of participants were concerned about resuming work. Major concerns included asymptomatic infection (85.01%) and employees gathering in the workplace (78.96%). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the female gender, having school-aged children and pregnancy were risk factors for being concerned about resuming work, while good knowledge and practice of preventive measures were protective factors. Knowledge and practice of preventive measures were positively correlated. Among preventive measures, the highest percentage of participants knew about wearing masks and washing hands. Meanwhile, 65.8% of participants expressed confidence in the ability of TCM to prevent COVID-19, where 74 and 51.3% thought there was a need and a strong need, respectively, for preventive TCM-based products. Among them, 71.5% preferred oral granules. Regarding TCM as a COVID-19 preventative, most were interested in information about safety and efficacy.Conclusion: These findings suggested that promoting knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19 prevention can help alleviate concerns about returning to work. Meanwhile, TCM can feasibly be accepted to diversify COVID-19 prevention methods.Clinical Trial Registration:, identifier: ChiCTR2000031955.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257398
Arif Alper Cevik ◽  
David O. Alao ◽  
Hani O. Eid ◽  
Michal Grivna ◽  
Fikri M. Abu-Zidan

Background Falls in the Gulf countries are the second most common cause of injuries. The United Arab Emirates government implemented various preventive measures to decrease injuries in the country. We aimed to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology of fall-related injuries in Al-Ain City over the last decade. Methods Data of hospitalized patients who presented with fall-related injuries to the Al-Ain Hospital during the two periods of March 2003 to March 2006 and January 2014 to December 2017 were compared. This included patients’ demographics, mechanism, location, anatomical distribution and parameters related to injury severity. Non-parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results 882 in the first and 1358 patients in the second period were studied. The incidence of falls decreased by 30.5% over ten years. The number of elderly, female patients, and UAE nationals increased, (p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p < 0.001). Falls from height decreased by 32.5% (p < 0.001) while fall on the same level increased by 22.5% (p < 0.001). Fall-related injuries at home have increased significantly by 22.6% (p <0.001), while falls in workplaces decreased by 24.4% (p <0.001). Conclusions Our study showed that the overall incidence of falls decreased compared to a decade ago. The preventive measures were effective in reducing falls from height and workplace injuries. Future preventive measures should target falls at the same level and homes.

2021 ◽  
pp. 001112872110465
Ardavan Khoshnood ◽  
Henrik Ohlsson ◽  
Jan Sundquist ◽  
Kristina Sundquist

Sweden has witnessed a significant increase in the rate of firearm-related homicide. We therefore aimed to study the characteristics of individuals suspected of homicide, attempted homicide, preparation to commit homicide as well as conspiracy to commit homicide with a firearm in Sweden. By using information from different registers, suspected individuals between 2000 and 2017 and aged 15 to 60 were included in the study. A total of 889 individuals were evaluated. A notable part were females (5.1%). Latent Class Analysis identified three classes, where two classes were high-offending-classes, and one class was a low-offending-class. The identification of these classes may be used for more effective preventive measures.

Mina Aghaei ◽  
Masud Yunesian

Although the vaccination has begun in many countries around the world, experts declare that there is a long way to go in coronavirus battle, and it will take a long time for the vaccine to have a significant effect.  Therefore many questions have arisen about “the necessity to keep taking health protocols” and “how long does it take for people to return to normal activities and reduce or even abandon health protocols after receiving the Covid-19 vaccine”. According to CDC (Centers for Disease Control and prevention) reports, significant immunity is expected to occur approximately 2 weeks after receiving the second dose of the vaccine, however getting the vaccine does not mean the end of public health and preventive measures, and all full vaccinated people need to keep taking all health protocols and precautions for the reasons discussed in this letter to editor.

D. V. Senˈ

The author investigates the reasons, forms and methods of sending spies from the territory of the Kuban, part of the Crimean Khanate. The spies "subversive" activities were most often directed by the ataman Ignat Nekrasov. For the first time in academic literature, the author systematically analyzes the tasks assigned to these Nekrasov‟s spies, as well as the conditions that both facilitated and hindered their implementation. Achieving the goal and objectives of this article, general investigative and special historical methods are used. The article is based on written historical sources of XVIII c. from several Russian federal and regional archives. The paper focuses on the geography of the "subversive" activities of such people, their composition and the peculiarities of training to perform tasks that are not always associated with the collection of intelligence information on the territory of Russia. In addition, the reactions of various categories of Russian citizen who communicated with the Ignat Nekrasov‟s spies are identified and studied. Numerous search activities and preventive measures of the Russian authorities aimed at suppressing / preventing the activities of the Nekrasov‟s spies, as well as at their capture and organization of interrogations are systematically analyzed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Tolulope Musa-Booth ◽  
Blessing Enobun ◽  
Adewumi Agbomola ◽  
Clive Shiff

Malaria constitutes a major public health challenge and Nigeria contributes hugely to the global burden. In recent times, there has been a massive scale up of all interventions for evident impact. One of the novel preventive measures being considered is the RTS,S malaria vaccine. The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ knowledge, attitude, and practices to malaria and its prevention as well as mothers’ willingness to accept the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine. A cross-sectional study design was used to administer questionnaires to 180 mothers within six public secondary health facilities in Abuja, Nigeria. About 30% (36/180) of respondents were aware of malaria vaccines but only four percent (7/180) had heard of RTS,S. Young maternal age (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.09-5.28; P = 0.03), self-employment (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.04-6.28; P = 0.04) and formal employment (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.17-11.99; P = 0.03) were associated with no prior knowledge of malaria vaccine. Ninety-one percent (163/180) had a positive attitude to malaria vaccine and 98% (176/180) were willing to allow their child(ren) to be immunized with RTS,S despite the efficacy of the vaccine, route of administration and number of doses. We concluded that knowledge of malaria preventive measures does not correlate with knowledge of RTS,S. Although willingness to accept RTS,S is high, consistent targeted messaging on RTS,S would be required to improve community knowledge and attitude prior to implementation to ensure maximum uptake.

2021 ◽  
pp. JNM-D-20-00061
Mona I. Hebeshy ◽  
Dana M. Hansen ◽  
Barbara Broome ◽  
Somaya Abou Abdou ◽  
Carolyn Murrock ◽  

Background and purposeValid and reliable measurements are paramount to advance the science of intensive care unit (ICU) nursing. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of the Nurses' Intention to Use Deep Vein Thrombosis Preventive Measures Questionnaire among critically ill patients in an Egyptian ICU. A crosssectional, predictive design pilot-tested the psychometric properties of the questionnaire in a convenience sample of 78 RNs working in ICU.MethodsConstruct validity was examined using factor analysis.ResultsThe Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin measure of sampling was 0.71, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant (X2 = 410.16, p < .05). Four factors were identified through factor analysis. Cronbach's α assessed the internal consistency reliability with a value of .82.ConclusionOur analyses showed that the Nurses' Intention to Use Deep Vein Thrombosis Preventive Measures Questionnaire has good validity and reliability; however, further investigations will be completed.

Tajudeen Olusegun Rasheed

Background: Individuals at shooting ranges are exposed to high amount of lead fumes either indoor or outdoor. The shooters sprayed lead dust into the air upon discharge of the cartridge at arm’s length distance. Most of the previous studies conducted at shooting ranges focused on blood lead levels (BLLs) of exposed people and there are limited studies on the risk associated with the shooting of firearms. This study aimed to review previous studies on the hazards associated with the discharge of firearms, and safety measures at shooting ranges. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to explore the available evidence. The databases were searched using the keywords “indoor shooting ranges”, “outdoor shooting ranges”, “firearms shooting”, “lead poisoning hazard”, “blood lead biomarkers”, “permissible exposure limit”, and “safety practice on lead”. Results: The designated BLL for case definition in lead poisoning was between 0.1μg/dL - 0.49μg/dL. It was estimated that at Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). PEL of 0.5μg/m3, 95 percent of range users who are exposed to lead poisoning regularly can have BLL of <5μg/dL during 20 years of working life, while at 2.1μg/m3, 95 percent of the workers can have BLL of<10μg/dL during their working life. Conclusion: To protect firearm handlers and shooting range workers, policy on preventive measures should be implemented at shooting ranges by policymakers. Compliance with preventive measures is encouraged to avoid the high cost of rehabilitation lead poisoning.

Raphael Mendonça Guimarães ◽  
José Henrique Costa Monteiro Da Silva ◽  
Gustavo Pedroso de Lima Brusse ◽  
Thalyta Cásssia de Freitas Martins

ABSTRACT Purpose This study aims to examine the association between physical distancing measures and COVID-19 incidence among Brazilian states. Methods We divided the methodology was divided into three steps. In the first step, we used nationwide GPS daily data to estimate country and state-level physical distancing and examined the association with COVID-19 incidence through a GAM model. Secondly, using PNAD COVID 19 data, a cluster analysis categorized the Brazilian states into different categories of physical distancing policies promoting adoption and political inclination of their governments. Finally, through a Poisson Regression Model, we examined the association of state physical distancing with variables related to the socio-economic situation, test coverage and early adoption of policies promoting physical distancing of each state. Results Physical distancing effects on reduction of COVID-19 spread are heterogeneous among states. Estimation of (IRR) suggests that in a scenario of 100% of social isolation incidence of COVID-19 will have reached approximately only 2.6% of the magnitude compared to when there is no social isolation for Brazil (CI 95% 0.8 - 8.3). Only a 10% increase in SII in the country could have reflected in a 30.5% decrease of number of cases in 14 days. Adoption of physical distancing was associated with test coverage (IRR 0.976, CI 95% 0.973-0.979), Home Office (IRR 1.042, CI 95% 1.039 – 1.046), informal work proportion (IRR 0.961, CI 95% 0.958 – 0.965), political spectrum (IRR 0.961, CI 95% 0.958 – 0.965) and early moment of restrictive politics implementation (IRR 1.017, CI 95% 1.013 – 1.021). Conclusion Physical distancing measures play a crucial role in mitigating the pandemic's spread. These analyses are crucial to support government decisions and improve the community's adherence to preventive measures.

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