preventive measures
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
A.A. Khan ◽  
J. Khan ◽  
N. Khatoon ◽  
S. Arshad ◽  

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 151-162
Éva Szabó ◽  
Kitti Kóródi ◽  
Erzsébet Szél ◽  
Balázs Jagodics*

<p style="text-align: justify;">Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) preventive measures influenced teachers directly. The sudden shift to new teaching environment emerged unknown challenges influencing teachers’ work differently. As self-efficacy is a key factor of successful teaching, the goal of our study was to examine the relationship among teachers’ efficacy-related experiences, work satisfaction and workload during the pandemic. 769 teachers (55 men and 677 female, 32 undefined) completed the online version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale and the Relative Self-Efficacy Scale. Findings indicated significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and self-efficacy as well as job satisfaction and the sense of competency. Kruskal-Wallis Test proved higher level of self-efficacy among teachers with more experience in online teaching in the past. According to SEM analysis, job satisfaction is predicted by efficacy beliefs concerning the sense of competence, motivation, coping and conflict resolution. Our findings indicate that experience in online teaching methods can enhance self-efficacy, which contributes to higher job satisfaction.</p>

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 220
Ana Mariel Torres-Contreras ◽  
Antoni Garcia-Baeza ◽  
Heriberto Rafael Vidal-Limon ◽  
Isaias Balderas-Renteria ◽  
Mónica A Ramírez-Cabrera ◽  

Human skin works as a barrier against the adverse effects of environmental agents, including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Exposure to UVR is associated with a variety of harmful effects on the skin, and it is one of the most common health concerns. Solar UVR constitutes the major etiological factor in the development of cutaneous malignancy. However, more than 90% of skin cancer cases could be avoided with appropriate preventive measures such as regular sunscreen use. Plants, constantly irradiated by sunlight, are able to synthesize specialized molecules to fight against UVR damage. Phenolic compounds, alkaloids and carotenoids constitute the major plant secondary metabolism compounds with relevant UVR protection activities. Hence, plants are an important source of molecules used to avoid UVR damage, reduce photoaging and prevent skin cancers and related illnesses. Due to its significance, we reviewed the main plant secondary metabolites related to UVR protection and its reported mechanisms. In addition, we summarized the research in Mexican plants related to UV protection. We presented the most studied Mexican plants and the photoprotective molecules found in them. Additionally, we analyzed the studies conducted to elucidate the mechanism of photoprotection of those molecules and their potential use as ingredients in sunscreen formulas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Didier Ducloux ◽  
Cécile Courivaud

Post-transplant diabetes is a frequent complication after transplantation. Moreover, patients suffering from post-transplant diabetes have increased cardiovascular morbidity and reduced survival. Pathogenesis mainly involves beta-cell dysfunction in presence of insulin resistance. Both pre- and post-transplant risk factors are well-described, and some of them may be corrected or prevented. However, the frequency of post-transplant diabetes has not decreased in recent years. We realized a critical appraisal of preventive measures to reduce post-transplant diabetes.

2022 ◽  
Takayuki Ohishi ◽  
Takuya Yamagishi ◽  
Hitomi Kurosu ◽  
Hideaki Kato ◽  
Yoko Takayama ◽  

Abstract Background This is a case report on a cluster infection of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 delta AY.1 variant at an accommodation facility and the subsequent attempts to isolate individuals who tested positive. Methods The background that facilitated this cluster was investigated, and the conditions in which infection was established, the infection route, and the effectiveness of routine measures were evaluated. Ninety-nine staff members had been working at the accommodation facility at the time of infection, and it was estimated that 10 members were infected with the delta AY.1 variant. Results Our results suggest that infection of staff from a patient staying overnight should be excluded. The factors contributing to the cluster infection involved short-distance conversations with individuals wearing non-woven three-layer masks moved out of position (non-woven) and gathering together with individuals wearing non-woven masks in hypoventilated conditions. Our findings also indicate that this variant is possibly airborne and can infect individuals in enclosed spaces with poor ventilation, even when either infected or exposed individuals wear non-woven masks. Conclusions The routine maintenance of systems established for the detection of infections and prompt and appropriate preventive measures following the identification of positive individuals will help prevent further cluster infections.

2022 ◽  
Mustafa Mohamed Ibrahim Ali ◽  
Khabab Abbasher Hussien Mohamed Ahmed ◽  
Mohammed Eltahier Abdalla Omer ◽  
Gaffar Alemam A. Manhal

Abstract Background COVID-19 is a novel respiratory infectious disease. Preventive measures against COVID-19 include facemask use, physical distancing and good sanitation and hygiene practices. Risk perception of COVID-19 is important in prevention. Lockdown was imposed in Sudan in early 2020. The study aim to: study the compliance, risk perception and attitude of University of Khartoum Medical Students to safety measures during the period of COVID-19 lockdown. Methodology: A University-based cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Khartoum, Faculty of Medicine in 435 students selected via proportionate stratified random sampling through a self-administered semi- structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Pearson and Mann Whitney U test were used to measure associations. Result Out of 435 participants, a mean adherence of 57.7%, mean risk perception of 73.6% was elicited. And 80.3% had a positive attitude towards lockdown. Adherence had significant association with gender and risk perception. Risk perception had no significant relation with gender. Conclusion In conclusion, adherence to preventive measures among medical students of the University of Khartoum was poor. Risk Perception was high. Attitude towards lockdown was positive.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Jitka Krocová ◽  
Radka Prokešová

In the case of the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) related to healthcare provision, high-quality and comprehensively provided nursing care is essential. Implementation of preventive strategies is based on recommended procedures, and the introduction of whole sets of measures has been shown to be effective. The objective of this research is to find out whether the providers of acute bed care have implemented the steps of CAUTI prevention, and specifically which measures leading to improved quality of care in the area of urinary infections are already in place. To determine this, we carried out quantitative research. Data were collected using a questionnaire-based investigation; we used two non-standardised and one standardised questionnaire, and the respondents were general nurses in management positions (n = 186). The results revealed that result-related CAUTI indicators are monitored by only one-third of the respondents, and records of catheterisation indication are not kept by 17.3% of general nurses. The results of the research showed deficiencies in the monitoring of CAUTI outcome and process indicators, and a weakness of the implemented preventive measures is the maintenance of catheterisation documentation. Periodic CAUTI prevention training is not implemented as recommended. It is positive that there are well-working teams of HAI prevention experts in hospitals.

2022 ◽  
pp. 16-21
Ж.К. Утаров ◽  
К.К. Куракбаев

В сфере здравоохранения во избежание стагнации во время пандемии необходимо максимально обезопасить медицинский персонал и проводить большое количество профилактических мероприятий. Как доказано во многих научных статьях, главной мерой защиты медицинских работников от заражения и смерти является не только полное и своевременное обеспечение средствами индивидуальной защиты, но и подготовка специальных специалистов, которые научат, как правильно их применять. In the healthcare sector, in order to avoid stagnation during a pandemic, it is necessary to protect medical personnel as much as possible and carry out a large number of preventive measures. As proved in many scientific articles, the main measure to protect medical workers from infection and death is not only the full and timely provision of personal protective equipment, but also the training of special specialists who will teach how to use them correctly.

Vito Carlo Alberto Caponio ◽  
Maria Rosaria Lipsi ◽  
Francesca Fortunato ◽  
Fabio Arena ◽  
Lorenzo Lo Muzio

To raise awareness about preventive measures in COVID-19 pandemic, even though fully vaccinated. Although recent trials showed high efficacy of vaccines in preventing symptomatic infections, there are some individuals experiencing symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case report, a fully vaccinated young dental practitioner experienced symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection 55 days postvaccination with BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccine with evident ageusia. Diagnostic swabs were performed and used for viral genome sequencing. The patient fully recovered 15 days after diagnosis. Loss of smell and taste, together with nasal congestion were the main reported symptoms. The use of personal protective equipment prevented spread of infection in patients and co-workers. With the increase of people being fully vaccinated, it is still necessary to follow infection preventive protocols by correctly applying personal protective equipment. Although high efficacy has been proved, some individuals may still be vulnerable to symptomatic infection and new guidelines and markers should be adopted and investigated to find out patients for whom vaccination may not determine full immunization.

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